This study investigated changes in the real-time measured levels of milk β-hydroxybutyrate according milk yield, lactation number and status of reproduction in dairy cows. A total of 378 cows were selected. According to their reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following groups: Fresh (1 – 44 days after calving. n=43). Open (45 – 65 days after calving. n=78), Inseminated (1 – 35 days after insemination. n=133). Pregnant (35 – 60 days after insemination and pregnant (relatively pregnant) (n=124). The cows were milked with DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden) in combination with a Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) analyser. We observed that milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) had a tendency of increasing with an increase of lactation number. The average BHB in multiparous cows was 11.111% higher in comparison with primiparous cows (p<0.001). We found higher BHB concentration in the multiparous cows in all reproduction status groups (p<0.001). A strong positive statistically significant (p<0.001) relationship has been found between BHB and the average milk yield within all groups of primiparous cows although we found a statistically unreliable coefficient of correlation (from -0.202 to 0.057) between highest milk yield and BHB in primiparous and multiparous cows.
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the ability of spermatozoa to bind exoge- nous DNA and transfer it into oocytes by fertilization. However, SMGT is still undergoing opti- mization to improve its efficiency to produce transgenic animals. The acrosome reaction is neces- sary for spermatozoa to carry the exogenous DNA into oocytes. In this study, the effect of the acrosome reaction on the efficiency of spermatozoa carrying exogenous DNA was evalua- ted. The results showed that the efficiency of the acrosome reaction was significantly higher (p<0.05) after incubation with 50 μmol/L progesterone compared to incubation without proges- terone. It was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 20, 40, and 60 min of progesterone treatment groups than in the 0 min treatment group. The spermatozoa were further incubated with cyanine dye Cy5 labeled DNA (Cy5-DNA) for 30 min at 37°C, and positive fluorescence signals were detected after the acrosome reaction was induced by progesterone at concentrations of 0 and 50 μmol/L for 40 min. The percentage of positive Cy5-DNA signals in spermatozoa was 96.61±2.06% and 97.51±2.03% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respective- ly. The percentage of partial spermatozoa heads observed following combination with Cy5-DNA was 39.73±3.03% and 56.88±3.12% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respec- tively. The ratio of positively stained spermatozoa combined with exogenous DNA showed no reduction after the acrosome reaction. These results suggest that the acrosome reaction might not be the key factor affecting the efficiency of SMGT.
In the present study a severe outbreak of hemorrhagic pneumonia (HP) in neonatal minks concomitant with Leismania infantum (L. infantum) detection is reported. The outbreak took place on a Greek mink farm and affected 1,362 mink kits, with 524 dying. Macroscopic lesions of 14 necropsied affected kits were confined to the respiratory system with dark red, consolidated lung lobes and to the small intestine with severe, acute, hemorrhagic and necrotic enteritis. Microscopic examination of lung sections revealed severe hemorrhagic pyogranulomatous pneumonia. Bacteria were obtained in pure culture from the lungs of all necropsied animals and were confirmed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Three out of 14 (21.4%) animals were positive for the presence of L. infantum DNA. The outbreak was attributed to the infection of minks with P. aeruginosa, possibly as a consequence of being immuno-suppressed by L. infantum. Further research is necessary, especially on the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa/L. infantum co-infection and the implications of this interaction on HP disease outcome.
Taking bacterial virulence factors as targets is a new therapy for treating host bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on α-hemolysin production of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and reducing the damage to bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) induced by S. aureus α-hemolysin. Subinhibitory concentrations of matrine decreased the production of α-hemolysin in none dose-dependent manner and matrine exhibited a protective effect on S. aureus-induced BMECs injury. The results indicated that the structure of matrine may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed at curing and preventing dairy bovine mastitis.
The bacterial species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica are pathogenic for humans and domestic animals and are transmitted by ticks, e.g., of the Ixodes genus. Most of the vertebrate species constituting reservoirs for anaplasmas are known, but the potential reservoirs of rickettsiae are still under discussion. This study presents an analysis of the DNA of tick-borne pathogens isolated from the whole blood of goats grazing on meadows in West Pomerania, Poland. No DNA of A. phagocytophilum was found in the blood of the goats, while the DNA of R. helvetica was detected in 5.5% of the animals. The potential role of ruminants in the circulation of R. helvetica remains unknown.
The objective of this study was to investigate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar added to drinking water with the anticoccidial effect of amprolium to feed broiler chicken. The study has adopted an observational approach to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar on broiler chicken. The antioxidative changes were measured adding natural apple cider vinegar to drinking water. Four hundred and fifty broiler chickens were purchased from the local market and distributed into three groups (T+vc: positive control, T-vc: negative control Tv: apple cider vinegar) with 150 chickens in each group. The three groups were further replicated into 3 blocks each containing 50 chickens. The groups were fed balanced diet, amprolium was added to the feed of positive control group, and apple cider vinegar was added to the water of Tv group. Measurements of the different variables were started from week 3, at the end of each week 3 birds were chosen randomly, blood samples were collected via the wing vein, and fecal oocysts were counted from intestinal contents of each individual bird using the McMaster technique. Broiler in the control groups T+ve and T-ve showed clinical signs of coccidiosis (blood in feces) and the number of coccidial oocytes in feces increased with time. In the vinegar group, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed. Concentrations of total antioxidants and catalase enzyme activity significantly increased (p≤0.05); while malondialdehyde concentration significantly decreased (p≤0.05).
Inflammation together with lipolysis and ketogenesis in early lactation can cause low productivity and may be harmful to the cow health. The objective of the study was to determine if ketoprofen treatment in the first days following parturition would positively affect the milk production and whether it was associated with the metabolic and inflammatory response. The study was conducted on 30 cows divided into two groups of 15 cows each. The experimental group was treated with 3 mg × kg. bw. -1 ketoprofen for three consecutive days after parturition. The blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment and in the first and second week postpartum and they were analyzed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), tumour necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) and haptoglobin. The results suggested that ketoprofen-treated cows with a higher milk production had a significantly lower concentration of NEFA, BHB, TNF-a and haptoglobin in the first and second week postpartum. No differences were found in the control group in metabolic status regardless of the achieved level of milk production. Ketoprofen administration in postpartum cows can enhance the milk yield. The higher milk yield in the experimental group might be associated with a lower degree of lipolysis, ketogenesis and reduced inflammatory response in the first two weeks postpartum.
Current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of royal jelly on Flunixin me- glumine (FM)-induced spermiotoxicity related to sperm concentration, abnormal spermatozoa count and histopathological changes in mice testis. The subjects were divided into five groups according to FM and/or royal jelly intake: Control group; group 1, FM alone (25 mg/kg, im); group 2, combination of FM (25 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral); group 3, FM alone (50 mg/kg, im); and group 4, combination of FM (50 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral). The animals were fed once daily for 15 days and they were sacrificed last day. Epididymal sperm concentration and abnormal spermatozoa count were noted. Testicular histological findings were evaluated. On purpose, organization of each animal was graded according to Johnsen’s scoring to assess the spermatogenesis relying on seminiferous tubule cross-section scores. Comparing to controls, FM administration caused a decrease in sperm concentration (p<0.05), an increase in total abnormal spermatozoa rates (p<0.05) and more degenerative changes in testes in mice. Royal jelly supplementation ameliorated both sperm concentration and abnormal spermato- zoa (p<0.05) comparing to the control group. In conclusion, we suggested that royal jelly might have protective effects in the FM-induced reductions in epididymal sperm concentration and in- crease in abnormal spermatozoa rate.
In humans, iron deficiency represents a relevant occurrence in heart failure (HF), with or without anaemia, and is associated with the worst outcome. Moreover, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a well-known comorbidity of HF and is strongly associated with the risk of developing anaemia. The most common cause of HF in dogs is myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the iron status in dogs with HF, with and without CKD. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the iron status in dogs affected by MMVD and how strong is the relation with HF. The retrospective study included 54 dogs with complete case records, echocardiography and laboratory analyses. Iron status was evaluated by measuring serum iron concentration (SIC), un- saturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and percentage of saturation (%SAT). The prevalence of dogs showing low serum iron concentration (SIC) was 18% in the whole population, 33% in symptomatic patients, 100% in dogs with acute decompensated HF. No signif- icant differences in SIC, UIBC, TIBC and %SAT median values were found among dogs classi- fied in different ACVIM (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine) classes, between symptomatic and non-symptomatic patients, and among IRIS (International Renal Interest Soci- ety) classes. Azotemic and non-azotemic patients presented a significant difference in SIC mean values (p=0.02). Generalised linear model (GLM) revealed that dogs with low SIC were at high- er risk of being included in a higher ACVIM class (OR=6.383, p-value=0.014). Log-rank analysis showed shorter survival in dogs with low SIC (p=0.020), multivariate Cox analysis revealed that only HF symptoms can affect survival.
Due to the unrecognized effect of tigecycline (TIG) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the present study has been undertaken in order to determine whether the drug can affect these cells in respect of their counts, and the production of IFN-γ, IL-17 (pro-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokines), IL-4 (anti-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokine), IL-10 and TGF-β (anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive cytokines). Murine lymphocytes were treated with TIG for 48 and 96 h at concentrations reflecting its plasma levels obtained in vivo at therapeutic doses, and at 10-fold lower concentrations. It was found that TIG neither affected substantially the percentage and absolute counts of entire CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations nor influenced the Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory/suppressive T cell subset. Furthermore, the percentages of IL-4-, IL-10-, IL-17- and TGF-β-producing CD4+ T cells were not altered following the exposure to TIG. Similarly, TIG did not influence IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells. Thus, with respect to the parameters evaluated, TIG does not seem to exert immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory effects.
The aim of this study was to establish reference values for 2D and M-mode measurements in Dachshunds. Basic echocardiographic data, including M-mode, 2D and spectral Doppler measurements, was collected, analyzed and compared between 41 healthy Dachshunds and 50 other healthy dogs of similar weight. Echocardiographic reference intervals were prepared for Dachshunds. Dachshunds had a smaller left ventricular diameter in diastole and systole and a thicker septum than other dog breeds. Male Dachshunds had larger diastolic and systolic left ventricular diameter than females. Reference intervals for 2D and M-mode measurements in healthy Dachshunds differ from other dogs of similar weight and should be used for this breed to assess chamber enlargement.
The aim of our study was to determine the influence of L-carnitine (L-CAR) on the cellular parameters of hen erythrocytes during a 48 hour exposure to L-CAR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL in nutrient-deficient medium. Cell morphology, haemolysis, caspase 3/7 activity and glucose uptake (GU) were determined. The results showed a lower percentage of apoptotic cells and decreased haemolysis of erythrocytes treated for 48 hours at all the concentrations of L-CAR. The amino acid at 50 mg/mL inhibited the activity of proapoptotic caspase 3/7; however, it increased GU. In contrast, caspase 3/7 level was increased but GU was decreased in erythrocytes treated with 100 mg/mL of L-CAR when compared to the control. It may be hypothesized that reduction of apoptotic changes in hen erythrocytes may result from increased GU.
The reliable and rapid diagnosis of infectious animal diseases presents an exceptionally im- portant aspect when considering their control and prevention. The paper describes the compara- tive evaluation of two rapid isothermal amplification methods for diagnosis of African swine fever (ASF). The robustness of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the cross-priming amplification (CPA) were compared using samples obtained from ASF confirmed animals. Both assays were evaluated in order to define their diagnostic capabilities in terms of ASF diagnosis and reproducibility of the results. Investigations showed no cross-reactivity for other pig patho- gens and no significant differences in the specificity of both assays. The sensitivity of LAMP reached 90%, while that of CPA was 70%. In conclusion, both methods are suitable for imple- mentation in preliminary ASF diagnosis but further improvements are required to enhance their diagnostic sensitivity.
This study analysed the influence of montelukast (MON; 10-8 - 10-4 M), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist, on the contractility of the porcine uterine smooth muscle in the luteal phase of the oesterous cycle (n=8) and in early pregnancy (n=8). Stimulation of uterine strips in the luteal phase with MON has been shown to significantly reduce the amplitude of con- tractions, but not to affect the tension or frequency of contractions. A statistically significant tension increase and decrease in the frequency and amplitude of contractions was observed in pigs in early pregnancy. This suggests that MON has a different effect on the parameters under study in cyclic and pregnant pigs.
Blastocystis is a common enteric protozoan of humans and various species of animals. Culture and microscopic examination of fecal samples is the conventional method for identifying four major forms of Blastocystis (vacuolar, granular, non-vacuolar or cystic). In this article, we compared eight liquid media for cultivation of Blastocystis spp. Study material included fecal samples from clinically healthy pigs. Significant differences in the growth of Blastocystis on individual media were observed.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex, dynamic and hemostatic disorder which develops secondarily to a disease characterized with an imbalance in the pro-coagulant and anti-coagulant components of hemostasis. The aim of the study is to evaluate hemostatic dysfunc- tion and the DIC syndrome in cattle with displaced abomasum (DA), with using the hematologic analyses and an extensive coagulation profile in the 96 hour-period including before and after surgery. The animal material of the study consisted of 12 dairy cows diagnosed with displaced abomasum (9 LDA and 3 RDA without volvulus) in the 2-4 week period after parturation and with no other post-partum disease. In dairy cows diagnosed with DA, hematological, coagulomet- ric (PT, APTT, Fibrinogen) and coagulation factor analyses [D-Dimer, TAT (thrombin-anti- thrombin complex), ATIII (antithrombin III), PAI-1 (plazminogen activator inhibitor-1] were performed in blood samples obtained before the operation as well as 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 2, 5, 10, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the operation. In the DA cases, abnormalities were found in 6 of the 8 coagulation parameters. In the LDA and RDA groups, prolonged PT (sec), PT (INR) and APTT, hypofibrinogenemia, an increase in serum D-Dimer concentration at 72 and 96 hours after the operation and an increase in serum ATIII concentrations before and 30, 60 minutes and 2, 5, 72 and 96 hours after the operation was found (p<0.05). Hemostatic dysfunction and the risk of DIC developing in DA cases and continuing in the post-operative period was determined.
In this study, we propose a possible way of obtaining reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) free offspring from genetically valuable lines of Přeštice black-pied boars com- ming from PRRSV-positive pig breeding herds with the use of artificial insemination (AI). The ejaculates were collected from 4 different lines of boars. Samples of fresh semen were not detected with the virus and 12 sows were inseminated. Blood samples of sows and their offspring were repeatedly tested for the virus but the results were negative. We managed in this way to maintain the endangered population of this breed and obtain PRRSV-free offspring.
The aim of the study was to develop new laparoscopic technique for repeated recovery of sheep oocytes. Oocytes were aspirated with specifically designed catheter. It allowed to recover oocytes without ovary damage and to preserve very good quality of recovered oocytes. Fifteen ewes were oocytes donors. Oocytes were collected: one time (group I, n=15), two times (group II, n=15), three times (group III, n=10), four times (group IV, n=5). The endoscope was inserted into the abdominal cavity. Two trockars for putting the manipulators were inserted 15 cm cranial from the udder. Oocytes were collected by aspiration of the follicular fluid from the ovarian follicles. The observed clinical complications were: ovary bleeding and cicatrix at place of needle insertion, the fragmentary adhesion of infundibulum and ovary, adhesions of omentum and peri- toneum near the place where the grasping forceps were inserted and adhesion of ovary and uterus. Ovarian follicles (n=204) were aspirated, 130 (63.8%) oocytes were obtained. Out of 130 obtained oocytes, 112 were qualified for in vitro maturation. The remaining 18 oocytes (13.8%) were rejected due to cytoplasmic changes. The proposed technique allows for the collecting oocytes of good quality that can be used for IMV/IVF techniques and cloning.
Several human studies have reported that capsaicin has anti-pruritic effects. Moreover, sever- al concentrations of topical capsaicin have been used to alleviate itch. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-pruritic effect of capsaicin against histamine-induced pruritus compared with that of topical steroid or vehicle in 15 healthy beagles. Fifteen dogs were divided into three groups (n = 5 each), and treated topically with one of the following on the left side of the neck: capsaicin, positive control (steroid), or negative control (vehicle). Each treatment was performed twice daily for 8 days. All dogs were injected with histamine intradermally before treatment and on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th days of the treatment to evoke itch. Pruritus, wheal, and erythema intensity were assessed at each evaluation; cutaneous temperature was also recorded. On the final day, skin biopsy was conducted for histopathological evaluation for all dogs. The severity of pruritus was lesser in the capsaicin-treated group compared with the negative control group on day 8 (p<0.05). In the capsaicin and steroid groups, wheal size, erythema index, and cutaneous temperature also decreased compared with pretreatment. Histopathological evaluation showed that the capsaicin-treated group had a higher number of inflammatory cells in the dermis com- pared to the vehicle control group; however, the steroid-treated group showed less severe inflam- matory reactions than the vehicle control group. These results suggest that capsaicin cannot reduce inflammation but may play a helpful role in reducing pruritus in dogs.
Four and a half years of African Swine Fever (ASF) in population of free-ranging wild boars and domestic pigs revealed a number of novel insights into the disease epidemiology. Until November 20th, 2018, in total 3048 cases in wild boars and 213 outbreaks in domestic pigs have been confirmed. In spite of low contagiosity as well as low rate of ASF spread in wild boars the disease has an enormous socio-economical impact on the production of pigs in Poland. One of the most important aspects which directly influences the dynamics of ASF spread is the unpredictable hu- man activity. Another important factor responsible for continuous ASF spread is fast recovery of wild boar population in spite of efforts taken by hunters. Assuming our scientific opinion ASF seems to be present in wildlife for the incoming few or several years. Therefore, extraordinary measures should be prepared and undertaken to limit the risk of the occurrence of future out- breaks in domestic pigs. One of the most crucial issues is implementation of strict biosecurity measures in all domestic pigs holdings.
A clinical trial was performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of osaterone acetate (OSA) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs. Osaterone acetate (Ypozane, Virbac) was administered orally at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight once a day for seven days to 23 dogs with BPH. During the 28-day trial, the dogs were monitored five times for their clinical signs and prostate volume. The OSA treatment promoted rapid reduction of clinical scores to 73.2% on day 7 and to 5.9% on day 28 (p<0.05). Osaterone acetate induced the complete clinical remission in approximately 83.0% of the dogs on day 28. The prostate volume regressed to 64.3% of the pretreatment volume after two weeks of the treatment (p<0.05) and to 54.7% at the end of the trial (p<0.05). In conclusion, OSA quickly reduced clinical signs and volume of the prostate glands in dogs with BPH.
Early recognition of altered lactate levels is considered a useful prognostic indicator in dis- ease detection for both human beings and animals. It is reasonable therefore to hypothesize that a portable, point of care (POC) spectrophotometric device for analysis of lactate levels, may have an application for field veterinarians across a range of conditions and diagnostic procedures. In this study, a total of 72 cattle in the transition period underwent POC spectrophotometric lactate measurement with a portable device (The Vet Photometer) in the field, with a small portion of blood used for comparative ELISA evaluation. Lactate measurements were compared using a of Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. The Vet Photometer lactate mea- surement results were in agreement with those generated by the ELISA method. Values for the agreement were derived, in a 95% CI between -1.3 and 0.99, and a positive correlation (r=0.71) between the two measurements. The equation y= 0.68x + 0.60 was achieved using a Pass- ing-Bablok regression analysis. There were no statistical differences in mean values between the measurement methods. In conclusion, a novel veterinary POC spectrophotometric device “Vet Photometer” is an accurate device for evaluation of lactate levels in healthy transition cows.
The normotensive (Wistar) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats were examined to assess the response of the organism to selenium (Se) overdose. Moreover, the effect of zinc (Zn) and vitamin E, i.e. dietary components interacting in many biochemical processes with Se, on the Se uptake was evaluated. The control group was fed an untreated diet, and the diets of two other groups were overdosed with Se in the form of sodium selenite (9 mg/kg) and supplemented with Zn (13 mg/kg). Two experimental groups were fed a diet supplemented with Zn (13 mg/kg) and Se at an adequate level (0.009 mg/kg); a half of the animals was supplemented with vitamin E. The results showed significant differences in the Se contents between the rat strains in case of Se-overdosed groups, where in the liver and kidney tissue Se contents of SHR rats exceeded 3- and 7-fold the normotensive ones. The Se uptake was altered by the vitamin E; no effect of Zn was observed. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined in the animal tissues indicating different patterns according to rat strain, tissue analysed, and administered Se dose. Thus, Se overdose, for instance, via an incorrectly prepared dietary supplement, can result in serious imbalances of the biochemical status of the animals.
Enterococcus hirae belongs in the Enterococcus faecium group within the genus Enterococcus. This species occurs naturally in the environment, commensally in the alimentary tracts of animals, and pathologically for example in humans with urinary infections. Some strains of E. hirae possess virulence factors, including biofilm formation. Biofilm growth protects bacteria against host de- fences; biofilm can be a source of persistent infection. Testing bacterial strains for their ability to form biofilm might therefore facilitate their treatment or prevention. This study focuses on bio- film formation by E. hirae strains derived from various animals. This kind of testing has never been done before. A total of 64 identified E. hirae from laying hens, ducks, pheasants, ostriches, rabbits, horses and a goat were tested by means of three methods; using Congo red agar, the tube method and microtiter plate agar. The majority of strains were found to form biofilm. 62.5% of strains were biofilm-forming, four categorized as highly positive (OD570 ≥1); most strains were low-grade biofilm positive (0.1 ≤ OD 570 < 1). Related to poultry, 55 E. hirae strains were tested nd found to produce biofilm; 24 strains did not form biofilm, 31 strains were biofilm-forming; 27 strains showed low-grade biofilm formation, and four strains were highly biofilm-forming. Four strains from hens and ostriches reached the highest OD570 values, more than 0.500. Rabbit-derived E. hirae strains as well as strains isolated from horses and the goat were low-grade bio- film-forming. Microtiter plate assay proved to be the best tool for testing the in vitro biofilm for- mation capacity of E. hirae strains from different species of animals.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) can disturb the secretory function of the ovary and both contractions and secretory function of the uterus during the estrus cycle and pregnancy. Additionally, PCBs can pass through the placental barrier into allantoic and amniotic fluid. The presence of PCBs in these fluids is associated with higher frequency of spontaneous abortions and premature births in humans and animals. Therefore, the effect of PCBs, DDT and DDE on the connexins (Cx26, Cx32 and Cx43) and keratin 8 (KRT8) expression in bovine placentomes was investigated. The placentome slices from the second trimester of pregnancy were incubated with PCB153, 126, 77, DDT and DDE (each at doses of 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) for 48 h. Then, the slices were stained using immunohistochemistry. The density of Cxs staining was measured with Axio- Vision Rel. 4.8 software in fetal-maternal connections and binuclear cells (BNC). None of the tested xenobiotics (XBs) affected the localization of Cxs and KRT8 in the fetal-maternal connection area, but the XBs affected the density of Cxs in fetal-maternal connections and binuclear cells (BNCs). Depend on the doses, in fetal-maternal connections all used PCBs changed the protein expression of different Cxs, while in BNCs, all tested XBs except DDT increased the expression of Cxs. None of investigated XBs affected on KRT8 expression. In summary, used XBs affect the expression of Cxs and change the quantitative relationships between them. Therefore, XBs can unfavorably influence function of the utero-placental barrier in cows.