In this study, a procedure for optimal selection of measurement points using the D-optimality criterion to find the best calibration curves of measurement sensors is proposed. The coefficients of calibration curve are evaluated by applying the classical Least Squares Method (LSM). As an example, the problem of optimal selection for standard pressure setters when calibrating a differential pressure sensor is solved. The values obtained from the D-optimum measurement points for calibration of the differential pressure sensor are compared with those from actual experiments. Comparison of the calibration errors corresponding to the D-optimal, A-optimal and Equidistant calibration curves is done.
A method of tensile testing of materials in dynamic conditions based on a slightly modified compressive split Hopkinson bar system using a shoulder is described in this paper. The main goal was to solve, with the use of numerical modelling, the problem of wave disturbance resulting from application of a shoulder, as well as the problem of selecting a specimen geometry that enables to study the phenomenon of high strain-rate failure in tension. It is shown that, in order to prevent any interference of disturbance with the required strain signals at a given recording moment, the positions of the strain gages on the bars have to be correctly chosen for a given experimental setup. Besides, it is demonstrated that - on the basis of simplified numerical analysis - an appropriate gage length and diameter of a material specimen for failure testing in tension can be estimated.
Degradation of Supercapacitors (SC) is quantified by accelerated ageing tests. Energy cycling tests and calendar life tests are used since they address the real operating modes. The periodic characterization is used to analyse evolution of the SC parameters as a whole, and its Helmholtz and diffusion capacitances. These parameters are determined before the ageing tests and during 3 × 105 cycles of both 75% and 100% energy cycling, respectively. Precise evaluation of the capacitance and Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) is based on fitting the experimental data by an exponential function of voltage vs. time. The ESR increases linearly with the number (No) of cycles for both 75% and 100% energy cycling, whereas a super-linear increase of ESR vs. time of cycling is observed for the 100% energy cycling. A decrease of capacitance in time had been evaluated for 2000 hours of ageing of SC. A relative change of capacitance is ΔC/C0 = 16% for the 75% energy cycling test and ΔC/C0 = 20% for the 100% energy cycling test at temperature 25°C, while ΔC/C0 = 6% for the calendar test at temperature 22°C for a voltage bias V = 1.0 Vop. The energy cycling causes a greater decrease of capacitance in comparison with the calendar test; such results may be a consequence of increasing the temperature due to the Joule heat created in the SC structure. The charge/discharge current value is the same for both 75% and 100% energy cycling tests, so it is the Joule heat created on both the equivalent series resistance and time-dependent diffuse resistance that should be the source of degradation of the SC structure. The diffuse resistance reaches a value of up to 30Ω within each 75% energy cycle and up to about 43Ω within each 100% energy cycle.
Reliable, remote pulse rate measurement is potentially very important for medical diagnostics and screening. In this paper the Videoplethysmography was analyzed especially to verify the possible use of signals obtained for the YUV color model in order to estimate the pulse rate, to examine what is the best pulse estimation method for short video sequences and finally, to analyze how potential PPG-signals can be distinguished from other (e.g. background) signals. The presented methods were verified using data collected from 60 volunteers.
A recent IEEE Access Paper by Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA) proposed a new transient attack against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system. The attack is valid, but it is easy to build a defense for the KLJN system. Here we note that GAA’s paper contains several invalid statements regarding security measures and the continuity of functions in classical physics. These deficiencies are clarified in our present paper, wherein we also emphasize that a new version of the KLJN system is immune against all existing attacks, including the one by GAA.
Weak value amplification is a measurement technique where small quantum mechanical interactions are amplified and manifested macroscopically in the output of a measurement apparatus. It is shown here that the linear nature of weak value amplification provides a straightforward comparative methodology for using the value of a known small interaction to estimate the value of an unknown small interaction. The methodology is illustrated by applying it to quantify the unknown size of an optical Goos-Hänchen shift of a laser beam induced at a glass/gold interface using the known size of the shift at a glass/air interface.
Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC), called Supercapacitors (SC), are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.
Measurement of the perfusion coefficient and thermal parameters of skin tissue using dynamic thermography is presented in this paper. A novel approach based on cold provocation and thermal modelling of skin tissue is presented. The measurement was performed on a person’s forearm using a special cooling device equipped with the Peltier module. The proposed method first cools the skin, and then measures the changes of its temperature matching the measurement results with a heat transfer model to estimate the skin perfusion and other thermal parameters. In order to assess correctness of the proposed approach, the uncertainty analysis was performed.
The paper presents a method of calculation of position deviations from a theoretical, nominally rectilinear trajectory for a SAR imaging system installed on board of UAV. The UAV on-board system consists of a radar sensor, an antenna system, a SAR processor and a navigation system. The main task of the navigation part is to determine the vector of differences between the theoretical and the measured trajectories of UAV center of gravity. The paper includes chosen results of experiments obtained during ground and flight tests.
An analytical expression for the standard deviation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) estimation is derived. It applies to the case where the estimator uses sine fitting. It is shown that, in common circumstances, it is inversely proportional to the actual value of THD, the signal-to-noise ratio and the square root of the number of samples. The proposed expression is validated both with numerical simulations and an experimental setup using a Monte Carlo procedure.
In this paper precision of the system controlling delivery by a helicopter of a water capsule designed for extinguishing large scale fires is analysed. The analysis was performed using a numerical method of distribution propagation (the Monte Carlo method) supplemented with results of application of the uncertainty propagation method. In addition, the optimum conditions for the airdrop are determined to ensure achieving the maximum area covered by the water capsule with simultaneous preserving the precision level necessary for efficient fire extinguishing.
We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key distribution schemes which are generalizations of the original KLJN scheme. The first of these, the Random-Resistor (RR-) KLJN scheme, uses random resistors with values chosen from a quasi-continuum set. It is well-known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such a system could work in cryptography, because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements, but the RR-KLJN system has not been addressed in prior publications since it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it now is the second scheme, the Random Resistor Random Temperature (RRRT-) KLJN key exchange, inspired by a recent paper of Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl, wherein security was shown to be maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT-KLJN secure key exchange scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT-KLJN scheme can prevail at a non-zero power flow, and thus the physical law guaranteeing security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem. Alice and Bob know their own resistances and temperatures and can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end of the communication channel from measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. However, Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are four unknown quantities while she can set up only three equations. The RRRT-KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all former attacks on the KLJN scheme invalid or incomplete.
A modification of the descriptor in a human detector using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is presented. The proposed modification requires inserting the values of average cell brightness resulting in the increase of the descriptor length from 3780 to 3908 values, but it is easy to compute and instantly gives ≈ 25% improvement of the miss rate at 10‒4 False Positives Per Window (FPPW). The modification has been tested on two versions of HOG-based descriptors: the classic Dalal-Triggs and the modified one, where, instead of spatial Gaussian masks for blocks, an additional central cell has been used. The proposed modification is suitable for hardware implementations of HOG-based detectors, enabling an increase of the detection accuracy or resignation from the use of some hardware-unfriendly operations, such as a spatial Gaussian mask. The results of testing its influence on the brightness changes of test images are also presented. The descriptor may be used in sensor networks equipped with hardware acceleration of image processing to detect humans in the images.
This paper presents optimisation of a measuring probe path in inspecting the prismatic parts on a CMM. The optimisation model is based on: (i) the mathematical model that establishes an initial collision-free path presented by a set of points, and (ii) the solution of Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) obtained with Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO). In order to solve TSP, an ACO algorithm that aims to find the shortest path of ant colony movement (i.e. the optimised path) is applied. Then, the optimised path is compared with the measuring path obtained with online programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500 and with the measuring path obtained in the CMM inspection module of Pro/ENGINEER® software. The results of comparing the optimised path with the other two generated paths show that the optimised path is at least 20% shorter than the path obtained by on-line programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500, and at least 10% shorter than the path obtained by using the CMM module in Pro/ENGINEER®.
Layers of silver particles are used in the studies on pathophysiology and treatment of diseases, both in pre-clinical and clinical conditions. Silver layers can be formed using different techniques and on different substrates. Deposition by magnetron sputtering on glass beads was used in this study. Silver absorption by the body was estimated by calculating the difference in thickness of the silver nanolayer deposited on a bead and measured before and after application of the bead in an animal model of gastrointestinal inflammation. Recommendations for the minimal thickness of silver nanolayer deposited on glass beads were worked out for further studies.
In the article, analysis of the work conditions and the metrological characteristics of the air gauges dedicated for the roundness assessment is described. To reach the required accuracy of the acquired data, the phenomena of gas dynamics had to be analyzed in the whole flow through elements of the air gauge. A model based on the second critical parameters was used, because it reflects the true processes of the air flow. As a result, fast and accurate simulations provided series of the characteristics to be considered. Nevertheless, the chosen air gauge configuration underwent the experimental verification of its metrological characteristics. Finally, the entire measurement system Geoform with the gauge head based on the chosen air gauges underwent the accuracy test in order to make sure of its overall measurement quality.
This paper presents a preoperative hip reconstruction method with diagnosed osteoarthritis using Durom Hip Resurfacing System (DHRS). The method is based on selection and application of the resurfacing to the pelvis reconstructed on the basis of computed tomography. Quality and geometrical parameters of distinguished tissues have a fundamental significance for locating and positioning the acetabular and femoral components. The application precedes the measurements of anatomical structures on a complex numerical model. The developed procedure enables functional selection of endo-prosthesis and its positioning in such a way that it secures geometric parameters within the bone bed and the depth , inclination angles and ante-version of the acetabular component, the neck-shaft angle and ante-torsion angle of the neck of the femoral bone, and reconstruction of the biomechanical axis of the limb and the physiological point of rotation in the implanted joint. Proper biomechanics of the bone-joint complex of the lower limb is determined by correlation of anatomical-geometrical parameters of the acetabular component and parameters of the femoral bone.
A novel method for thermal diffusivity evolution of thin-film materials with pulsed Gaussian beam and infrared video is reported. Compared with common pulse methods performed in specialized labs, the proposed method implements a rapid on-line measurement without producing the off-centre detection error. Through mathematical deduction of the original heat conduction model, it is discovered that the area s, which is encircled by the maximum temperature curve rTMAX(θ), increases linearly over elapsed time. The thermal diffusivity is acquired from the growth rate of the area s. In this study, the off-centre detection error is avoided by performing the distance regularized level set evolution formulation. The area s was extracted from the binary images of temperature variation rate, without inducing errors from determination of the heat source centre. Thermal diffusivities of three materials, 304 stainless steel, titanium, and zirconium have been measured with the established on-line detection system, and the measurement errors are: −2.26%, −1.07%, and 1.61% respectively.
The issues connected with the complex design of various facilities, including up-to-date boiler equipment as well as the ways of organizing the space around them, are the reasons why there is often a lack of room for mounting a flowmeter in accordance with the recommendations of manufacturers. In most cases the problem is associated with ensuring sufficient lengths of straight pipe leading into and out of a flowmeter. When this condition cannot be fulfilled, the uncertainty of measurement increases above the value guaranteed by the manufacturer of the flowmeter. This sort of operation problem has encouraged the authors of this paper to undertake research aimed at the analysis of applicability of averaging Pitot tubes in the areas of flow disturbance.
This study addresses the problem of magnetic field emission produced by the laptop computers. Although, the magnetic field is spread over the entire frequency spectrum, the most dangerous part of it to the laptop users is the frequency range from 50 to 500 Hz, commonly called the extremely low frequency magnetic field. In this frequency region the magnetic field is characterized by high peak values. To examine the influence of laptop’s magnetic field emission in the office, a specific experiment is proposed. It includes the measurement of the magnetic field at six laptop’s positions, which are in close contact to its user. The results obtained from ten different laptop computers show the extremely high emission at some positions, which are dependent on the power dissipation or bad ergonomics. Eventually, the experiment extracts these dangerous positions of magnetic field emission and suggests possible solutions.
A simulation-based optimization approach to design of phase excitation tapers for linear phased antenna arrays is presented. The design optimization process is accelerated by means of Surrogate-Based Optimization (SBO); it uses a coarse-mesh surrogate of the array element for adjusting the array’s active reflection coefficient responses and a fast surrogate of the antenna array radiation pattern. The primary optimization objective is to minimize side-lobes in the principal plane of the radiation pattern while scanning the main beam. The optimization outcome is a set of element phase excitation tapers versus the scan angle. The design objectives are evaluated at the high fidelity level of description using simulations of the discrete electromagnetic model of the entire array so that the effects of element coupling and other possible interaction within the array structure are accounted for. At the same time, the optimization process is fast due to SBO. Performance and numerical cost of the approach are demonstrated by optimizing a 16-element linear array of microstrip antennas. Experimental verification has been carried out for a manufactured prototype of the optimized array. It demonstrates good agreement between the radiation patterns obtained from simulations and from physical measurements (the latter constructed through superposition of the measured element patterns).
The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive) attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system’s unconditional security.
Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.
The operating principles of RFID antennas should be considered differently than it is applied in the classical theory of radio communication systems. The procedure of measuring the radiation pattern of antennas that could be applied to RFID transponders operating in the UHF band is seldom discussed correctly in the scientific literature. The problem consists in the variability of the RFID chip impedance that strongly influences measurement results. The authors propose the proper methodology for determining the radiation pattern with respect to an individual transponder as well as an electronically tagged object. The advantage of the solution consists in the possibility of using components of different measuring systems that are available in typical antenna laboratories. The proposed procedure is particularly important in terms of parameter validation - the identification efficiency and costs of an RFID system implementation can be evaluated properly only on the basis of real values of considered parameters.
This paper presents signal processing aspects for automatic segmentation of retinal layers of the human eye. The paper draws attention to the problems that occur during the computer image processing of images obtained with the use of the Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD OCT). Accuracy of the retinal layer segmentation for a set of typical 3D scans with a rather low quality was shown. Some possible ways to improve quality of the final results are pointed out. The experimental studies were performed using the so-called B-scans obtained with the OCT Copernicus HR device.