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Abstrakt

The Polish Geophysical Expedition to West Antarctica in 1979-1980 was carried out by the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. Beside deep seismic soundings, 12 multi-channel seismic profiles, with a total length of ca 1000 km have been recorded north and east of the South Shetland Islands and in the Bransfield Strait, but they have never before been completely interpreted and published. All profiles have been processed with modern processing flow including time migration. Profiles crossing the South Shetland Trench revealed distinct reflector inside continental slope, which has been interpreted as border between buried accretionary prism and overlying slope sediments of glacial-marine origin. Profiles in the Bransfield Strait show traces of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the form of glacial foreground valleys, with some of them used as weak spots for young age volcanic intrusions. This paper is the first comprehensive geological interpretation of collected dataset and differences between results from other expeditions are discussed.
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Physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils and especially the properties of surface horizons of the soils are very important because they are responsible for the rate and character of plant colonization, development of vegetation cover, and influence the rate and depth of thawing of soils and development of active layer of permafrost during summer. The main aim of the present study is to determine and explain the spatial diversity of selected physical and chemical properties of surface horizons of Arctic soils from the non-glaciated Fuglebekken catchment located in the Hornsund area (SW Spitsbergen) by means of geostatistical approach. Results indicate that soil surface horizons in the Fuglebekken catchment are characterized by highly variable physical and chemical properties due to a heterogeneous parent material (marine sediments, moraine, rock debris), tundra vegetation types, and non-uniform influence of seabirds. Soils experiencing the strongest influence of seabird guano have a lower pH than other soils. Soils developed on the lateral moraine of the Hansbreen glacier have the highest pH due to the presence of carbonates in the parent material and a lack or presence of a poorly developed and discontinuous A horizon. The soil surface horizons along the coast of the Hornsund exhibit the highest content of the sand fraction and SiO2. The surface of soils occurring at the foot of the slope of Ariekammen Ridge is characterized by the highest content of silt and clay fractions as well as Al2O3, Fe2O3, and K2O. Soils in the central part of the Fuglebekken catchment are depleted in CaO, MgO, and Na2O in comparison with soils in the other sampling sites, which indicates the highest rate of leaching in this part of the catchment.
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This study presents the results of dendrochronological and dendroclimatological research of Betula pubescens from four sites in northern Norway (Kvaløya Island, Tromsøya Island and Storelva Valley), which provided a 193-year chronology. Our results highlight the importance of the site selection in dendroclimatological studies. We demonstrated that activity of geomorphic processes connected with local topography could led to reduced strength of climatic signal embedded in tree-ring data. Negative pointer years, triggered mainly by unfavourable climatic conditions and insect outbreaks, were common for all site chronologies in 1945, 1955, 1965, 1975, 1986, 2004. However, some site-specific differences were also distinguished. Response function analysis confirmed that June, July and August temperatures were positively correlated with tree-ring widths. This climate-growth relationship was stable throughout the years 1925-2000. From summer temperature reconstruction back to AD 1820, two colder (c. 1835-1850 and 1890-1920) and two warmer (c. 1825-1835 and 1920-1940) periods were identified. The tree-ring record from the Tromsø Region, well correlated between series, sites and climate variables, is an important element of a large-scale reconstruction of pre-instrumental climate variation in the northeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Our dendroclimatic reconstruction corresponds well with other climate proxy data, like fluctuations of mountain glaciers in Scandinavia or sea ice extent.
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The aim of the study was to compare cyanobacterial and algal assemblages occurring in ornithocoprophilous habitats formed under the influence of two seabird colonies (mixed colony of piscivorous Uria lomvia and Rissa tridactyla and planktivorous Alle alle) nesting on the southwest side of Hornsund (Spitsbergen). Various influences of the bird colonies (e.g. surface trophy, treading) lead to the formation of ornithogenic habitats with quantitatively and qualitatively diverse cyanobacterial and algal assemblages. Only 6 species common to both habitats were identified, but due to their different proportions the similarity ended there. Cyanobacterial and algal assemblages of both ornithogenic habitats also react rather differently to the intensity of the bird colonies' influence. The assemblages located directly beneath piscivorous bird nests were characterized by a larger number of species, which decreased the farther from the colony it was. Cyanobacterial and algal assemblages located directly next to planktivorous bird nests were species poor, but species richness increased at locations farther from their direct influence. The obtained results confirmed that bird colonies characterized by different diet and behavior influenced the formation of two separate, quantitatively and qualitatively different cyanobacterial and algal assemblages. Species such as Eucapsis sp., Gleocapsopsis sp., Gloeothece sp., Woronichinia sp., Hematococcus sp. were characteristic for algae and cyanobacteria assemblages in the vicinity of piscivorous bird colonies, whereas Aphanocapsa sp., Gloeothece sp., Komvophoron minutum, Pseudanabaena sp., Gloeocystis sp. 2 occurred in the vicinity of planktivorous bird colonies.
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How environmental conditions influence current distributions of organisms at the local scale in sensitive High Arctic freshwaters is essential to understand in order to better comprehend the cascading consequences of the ongoing climate change. This knowledge is also important background data for paleolimnological assessments of long-Term limnoecological changes and in describing the range of environmental variability. We sampled five limnologically different freshwater sites from the Fuglebergsletta marine terrace in Hornsund, southern Svalbard, for aquatic invertebrates. Invertebrate communities were tested against non-climatic environmental drivers as limnological and catchment variables. A clear separation in the communities between the sites was observed. The largest and deepest lake was characterized by a diverse Chironomidae community but Cladocera were absent. In a pond with marine influence, crustaceans, such as Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and calanoid Copepoda were the most abundant invertebrates. Two nutrient-rich ponds were dominated by a chironomid, Orthocladius consobrinus, whereas themost eutrophic pond was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia pulex, suggesting decreasing diversity along with the trophic status. Overall, nutrient related variables appeared to have an important influence on the invertebrate community composition and diversity, the trophic state of the sites being linked with their exposure to geese guano. Other segregating variables included water color, presence/absence of fish, abundance of aquatic vegetation and lake depth. These results suggest that since most of these variables are climate-driven at a larger scale, the impacts of the ongoing climate change will have cumulative effects on aquatic ecosystems.
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The rapidly changing Arctic provides excellent opportunities for investigating primary succession on freshly deglaciated areas. Research on the Gåsbreen foreland (S Spitsbergen) traced the succession of particular groups of organisms and species, particularly lichens and bryophytes, and determined the effect of selected abiotic factors on this succession. Fieldwork in 2008, employed a continuous linear transect of phytosociological relevés (1 m2) along the foreland. Data analysis allowed to distinguish five different succession stages and three types of colonisers. Canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test showed that distance from the front of the glacier and fine grain material in the substrate mostly influenced the distribution and abundance of vegetation, and the steepness of the moraine hills affected the colonisation process, mainly in the older part of the marginal zone.
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Four halacarid species: Agaue agauoides, Agaue parva, Bradyagaue drygalskii, and Halacarus minor have been extracted from bottom samples taken in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, another four, Colobocerasides auster, Halacarus arnaudi, Lohmannella fukushimai, and L. gaussi, from Kapp Norvegia, Atka and Halley Bay, Weddell Sea. Most of these species are widespread around Antarctica and adjacent islands. Diagnostic characters are outlined. An annotated list presents 66 halacarid species reported from south of the Antarctic Polar Front. © 2016 Polish Academy of Sciences 2016.
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Abstrakt

The following paper constitutes an investigation of Old Norse contributions to the development of the English language from a lexical-semantic perspective based upon the Proto-Germanic language. Such an approach is intended to offer a much deeper insight into the infl uence exerted by the speech of Vikings upon English, as well as to prove that the modifi cations of the English lexis resulting from the Anglo-Scandinavian contact represent an unusual and extremely rare language phenomenon, and at the same time to reveal surprisingly intriguing histories hidden behind many inconspicuous ordinary lexemes. Moreover, the investigation of Proto-Germanic forms ancestral to particular Scandinavian lexical items and their Anglo-Saxon equivalents may constitute an interesting, though obviously limited, account of the origin of vocabulary used by these two groups of Germanic peoples. Foremost, however, the Common Germanic parent language is hoped to serve as an important background for the analysis, due to its role in enabling all the unique interactions between the Old Norse tongue of the Viking raiders and the Old English speech of the Anglo-Saxons.
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The present paper focuses on one of the non-surviving preterite-present verbs, *dugan/deah ‘avail, be of use’. Although the verb exhibited a low frequency, it continued in use throughout Old and Middle English and died out only by the end of the latter period. The exception is some northern dialects and Scottish English, where it still functions as dow ‘to be able, to be willing’. The paper attempts to account for the disappearance of *dugan from English taking under consideration both language internal and external factors. The analysis covers the usage of the verb in question in Old and Middle English as well as its main and peripheral meanings. The comparison of the distribution and sense of *dugan in the two periods shows the plausible causes of its demise, which include semantic bleaching, loss of impersonal constructions from English, and the presence of the closest synonyms of *dugan.
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Abstrakt

Discourse Completion Test (DCT) became a very popular research instrument after the publication of the infl uential Blum-Kulka & Olshtain’s (1984) paper titled “Requests and apologies: a cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP)”. Hundreds and thousands of papers employing the data collection instrument, originally developed by Blum-Kulka in 1982, have been published since then, and the controlled elicitation procedure has left a very important mark on the way in which speech acts have been studied cross-culturally. DCT has its strong supporters as well as pronounced enemies, but its contribution to the development of the fi eld cannot be questioned. The paper presents an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the data collection tool, as well as a synthesis of the most important fi ndings which it has managed to yield so far. Major directions of research are summarized and possible future developments outlined.
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The paper examines the use of precision and approximation devices in a subset of English and Polish temporal expressions. Specifi cally, the corpus-based study reported here employs the Cognitive Linguistics analytic construct of “construal” to look into the variable degrees of precision and propositionality as it is coded linguistically in naturally-occurring data. We fi nd that approximation marking in the temporal magnitude representations under scrutiny is more pronounced than precision marking, and there are further conspicuous use asymmetries across languages (Polish vs. English), construal types (cumulative vs. fractional) and granularity levels (seconds/minute vs. minutes/hour).
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Abstrakt

The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), a tool used by specialists to let their patients describe the pain they (have) experience(d), has been rendered into different languages. Most renditions are either literal translations or cultural adaptations. Two examples include the Polish version offered by Sedlak and the Dutch-language version(s) respectively. By drawing on Fleck’s theory of scientifi c facts and thought collectives, an attempt is made to describe how the aforementioned renditions were created and what infl uence the chosen approach has on the fi nal version. Also, a detailed comparison of the Dutch-language version(s) and Sedlak’s Polish version of the MPQ with the original MPQ gives an invaluable insight into the ‘whilerendition processes’ that regulate modifi cations made to the form and content of the translated/adapted text.
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This paper examines the discursive construction of persuasiveness in media language. Analysing the corpus consisting of forty reviews of the French comedy “Intouchables” (2011), different invariant characteristics of the genre ‘fi lm review’ are established in the light of two discursive strategies of persuasion based on metonymy and the rhetorical argument from community and authority. As the mentioned strategies assume that the discourse is to infl uence the addressees’ will, decisions and emotions, they refl ect some of the persuasive techniques used in advertising discourse, especially with regard to indirect means of interpretation, suggestion and evaluation. Therefore, different methods for (re)construction of the reality presented in the analysed texts stem from shared values and emotions becoming starting points for the deliberative dimension of the fi lm review. Since our perception of the world is relative, the deployed strategies aim at eliminating the information verifi cation process. Thus, they shape the interpretation of the message towards a set of parameters governing its attractiveness in order to meet the contemporary addresses’ needs.
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Abstrakt

The aim of this article is to present selected meanings of the Spanish verb of movement entrar focused on the object oriented approach which can raise problems in the automatic translation process because of its ambiguity. The lexicographical description utilised in this analysis has been proposed by Banyś (2002a, 2002b) and constitutes the framework of this paper. Besides, the author shows the differences in presentations of selected meanings of the verb entrar in both Spanish and Polish.
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Every language is characterized by numerous phenomena which deserve particular attention. Among such phenomena in the German language, one should undoubtedly mention multi-part word compounds, which in this article are also referred to as multiple complex compounds, tapeworm compounds or tapeworm words. Various questions related to this German language phenomenon made it possible to establish the linguistic and extra-linguistic factors responsible for creating those long and extremely long compounds, the areas in which they are created, their length (depending on the number of letters), their position in the classifi cation of speech parts and their forms. In order to arrive at research conclusions in the present article, I have used the COSMAS II corpus. Examples of multi-part compounds come from FOCUS magazine articles published between January 2000 and June 2014.
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The objective of this paper is to acquaintance the readers with works of Aleksander Szulc, an eminent Polish linguist and researcher in glottodidactics, devoted to the topic of learning and teaching vocabulary during courses of German as a foreign language. Special attention has been paid to the notions of conventional syntagm and situation idiom introduced by Szulc. The fi rst part of the paper focuses on the former notion, which partially corresponds to the notion of collocation. We present the role of conventional syntagms in learning and teaching foreign vocabulary and the impact they have on the process of interference. We also argue for the presence of conventional syntagms in vocabulary building activities in classroom and in course books. Further we show the evolution of Szulc’s defi nition and understanding of the notion of conventional syntagm and how he progressed from this notion to the notion of collocation. The second part of the paper focuses on situation idioms which correspond to the modern notion of pragmatic fi xed phrases. After their short presentation, we argue for their signifi cance in learning German as a foreign language and hence, for the necessity of their incorporation in teaching of German. Finally, the article is also an attempt at reintroducing Szulc’s insights into academic discourse and an appeal to recognize his contribution to the research on collocationality.
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The article discusses the phenomenon of the existence of different languages in the public space in Scuol, a famous tourist locality and health resort in the Swiss canton of Grisons. The offi cial language of the town is Romansh, but all citizens speak fl uently also German that has become the second “mother”-tongue of the local population. The author analyses the complexity of the linguistic landscape in the town concentrating of the visible texts in the shops of the commercial center. From the research work results that German is the most visible language. Romansh appears in the fi rst place in the names of the shops and in the information about the opening times. Other texts in Romansh are scarce and they emerge in the most cases with the parallel texts in German. English plays as the global language an important role too, mostly in the advertising of expensive and prestigious products but also in more common contexts. Other languages appear only exceptionally. The relatively unimportant role of Romansh and the dominating position of German reveal that the existence of the oldest language of Switzerland in Scuol is endangered.
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This paper presents a detailed study of melting processes conducted on Hansbreen - a tidewater glacier terminating in the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. The fieldwork was carried out from April to July 2010. The study included observations of meltwater distribution within snow profiles in different locations and determination of its penetration time to the glacier ice surface. In addition, the variability of the snow temperature and heat transfer within the snow cover were measured. The main objective concerns the impact of meltwater on the diversity of physical characteristics of the snow cover and its melting dynamics. The obtained results indicate a time delay between the beginning of the melting processes and meltwater reaching the ice surface. The time necessary for meltwater to percolate through the entire snowpack in both, the ablation zone and the equilibrium line zone amounted to c. 12 days, despite a much greater snow depth at the upper site. An elongated retention of meltwater in the lower part of the glacier was caused by a higher amount of icy layers (ice formations and melt-freeze crusts), resulting from winter thaws, which delayed water penetration. For this reason, a reconstruction of rain-on-snow events was carried out. Such results give new insight into the processes of the reactivation of the glacier drainage system and the release of freshwater into the sea after the winter period.
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Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the soils of the High Arctic play an important role in the context of global warming, biodiversity, and richness of tundra vegetation. The main aim of the present study was to determine the content and spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N tot ), and total phosphorus (P tot ) in the surface horizons of Arctic soils obtained from the lower part of the Fuglebekken catchment in Spitsbergen as an example of a small non−glaciated catchment representing uplifted marine terraces of the Svalbard Archipelago. The obtained results indicate that surface soil horizons in the Fuglebekken catchment show considerable differences in content of SOC, N tot , and P tot . This mosaic is related to high variability of soil type, local hydrology, vegetation (type and quantity), and especially location of seabird nesting colony. The highest content of SOC, N tot , and P tot occurs in soil surface horizons obtained from sites fertilized by seabird guano and located along streams flowing from the direction of the seabird colony. The content of SOC, N tot , and P tot is strongly negatively correlated with distance from seabird colony indicating a strong influence of the birds on the fertility of the studied soils and indirectly on the accumulation of soil organic matter. The lowest content of SOC, N tot , and P tot occurs in soil surface horizons obtained from the lateral moraine of the Hansbreen glacier and from sites in the close vicinity of the lateral moraine. The content of N tot ,P tot , and SOC in soil surface horizons are strongly and positively correlated with one another, i.e. the higher the content of nutrients, the higher the content of SOC. The spatial distribution of SOC, N tot , and P tot in soils of the Hornsund area in SW Spitsbergen reflects the combined effects of severe climate conditions and periglacial processes. Seabirds play a crucial role in nutrient enrichment in these weakly developed soils.
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Thirty-two species of echinoderms from epibenthic sledges, dredges, scuba diving, and other samples (in total: 467 samples and c. 20 000 specimens) from fjords and coastal waters off Spitsbergen were analysed between 1996 and 2014. The most numerous group of echinoderms in the coastal waters off Spitsbergen is brittle stars (78% of the total individuals). The echinoderms do not form any clear assemblages according to depth or distance from glacial sedimentation and substrate. Some species prefer hard bottom (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) or water free from glacial suspensions (Ophiopholis aculeata). In contrast to the species listed above, we also found opportunistic species such as the starfish Urasterias lincki and the brittle star Ophiocten sericeum. These two species are distributed quite uniformly, regardless of the environmental factors. The majority of the species prefer a soft bottom below 200 m.
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We describe surface currents in the Porsanger fjord (Porsangerfjorden) located in the European Arctic in the vicinity of the Barents Sea. Our analysis is based on surface current data collected in the summer of 2014 using High Frequency (WERA, Helzel Messtechnik GmbH) radar system. One of our objectives was to separate out the tidal from the nontidal components of the currents and to determine the most important tidal constituents. Tides in the Porsanger fjord are substantial, with tidal range on the order of about 3 m. Tidal analysis attributes to tides about 99% of variance in sea level time series recorded in Honningsvaag. The most important tidal component in sea level data is the M2 component, with amplitude of ∼90 cm. The S2 and N2 constituents (amplitude of ∼20 cm) also play a significant role in the semidiurnal sea level oscillations. The most important diurnal component is K1 with amplitude of about 8 cm. The most important tidal component in analyzed surface currents records is the M2 component. The second most important component is the S2. Our results indicate that in contrast to sea level, only about 10-30% of variance in surface currents can be attributed to tidal currents. This means that about 70-90% of variance is due to wind-induced and geostrophic currents.
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The thermal state of permafrost is a crucial indicator of environmental changes occurring in the Arctic. The monitoring of ground temperatures in Svalbard has been carried out in instrumented boreholes, although only few are deeper than 10 m and none are located in southern part of Spitsbergen. Only one of them, Janssonhaugen, located in central part of the island, provides the ground temperature data down to 100 m. Recent studies have proved that significant warming of the ground surface temperatures, observed especially in the last three decades, can be detected not only just few meters below the surface, but reaches much deeper layers. The aim of this paper is evaluation of the permafrost state in the vicinity of the Polish Polar Station in Hornsund using the numerical heat transfer model CryoGrid 2. The model is calibrated with ground temperature data collected from a 2 m deep borehole established in 2013 and then validated with data from the period 1990-2014 from five depths up to 1 m, measured routinely at the Hornsund meteorological station. The study estimates modelled ground thermal profile down to 100 m in depth and presents the evolution of the ground thermal regime in the last 25 years. The simulated subsurface temperature trumpet shows that multiannual variability in that period can reach 25 m in depth. The changes of the ground thermal regime correspond to an increasing trend of air temperatures observed in Hornsund and general warming across Svalbard.
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