This study investigated changes in the real-time measured levels of milk β-hydroxybutyrate according milk yield, lactation number and status of reproduction in dairy cows. A total of 378 cows were selected. According to their reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following groups: Fresh (1 – 44 days after calving. n=43). Open (45 – 65 days after calving. n=78), Inseminated (1 – 35 days after insemination. n=133). Pregnant (35 – 60 days after insemination and pregnant (relatively pregnant) (n=124). The cows were milked with DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden) in combination with a Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) analyser. We observed that milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) had a tendency of increasing with an increase of lactation number. The average BHB in multiparous cows was 11.111% higher in comparison with primiparous cows (p<0.001). We found higher BHB concentration in the multiparous cows in all reproduction status groups (p<0.001). A strong positive statistically significant (p<0.001) relationship has been found between BHB and the average milk yield within all groups of primiparous cows although we found a statistically unreliable coefficient of correlation (from -0.202 to 0.057) between highest milk yield and BHB in primiparous and multiparous cows.
Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the ability of spermatozoa to bind exoge- nous DNA and transfer it into oocytes by fertilization. However, SMGT is still undergoing opti- mization to improve its efficiency to produce transgenic animals. The acrosome reaction is neces- sary for spermatozoa to carry the exogenous DNA into oocytes. In this study, the effect of the acrosome reaction on the efficiency of spermatozoa carrying exogenous DNA was evalua- ted. The results showed that the efficiency of the acrosome reaction was significantly higher (p<0.05) after incubation with 50 μmol/L progesterone compared to incubation without proges- terone. It was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 20, 40, and 60 min of progesterone treatment groups than in the 0 min treatment group. The spermatozoa were further incubated with cyanine dye Cy5 labeled DNA (Cy5-DNA) for 30 min at 37°C, and positive fluorescence signals were detected after the acrosome reaction was induced by progesterone at concentrations of 0 and 50 μmol/L for 40 min. The percentage of positive Cy5-DNA signals in spermatozoa was 96.61±2.06% and 97.51±2.03% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respective- ly. The percentage of partial spermatozoa heads observed following combination with Cy5-DNA was 39.73±3.03% and 56.88±3.12% following exposure to 0 and 50 μmol/L progesterone, respec- tively. The ratio of positively stained spermatozoa combined with exogenous DNA showed no reduction after the acrosome reaction. These results suggest that the acrosome reaction might not be the key factor affecting the efficiency of SMGT.
Textural properties and microstructures are commonly used properties in the analysis of Pleistocene and older glacial deposits. However, contemporary glacial deposits are seldom studied, particularly in the context of post-depositional changes. This paper presents the results of a micromorphological study of recently deposited tills in the marginal zones of Hansbreen and Torellbreen, glaciers in southwestern Spitsbergen. The main objectives of this study were to compare modern tills deposited in subglacial and supraglacial conditions, as well as tills that were freshly released from ice with those laid down several decades ago. The investigated tills are primarily composed of large clasts of metamorphic rocks and represent coarse-grained, matrix-supported diamictons. The tills reveal several characteristic features for ductile (e.g. turbate structures) and brittle (e.g. lineations, microshears) deformations, which have been considered to be indicative of subglacial conditions. In supraglacial tills, the same structures are common as in the subglacial deposits, which points to the preservation of the primary features, though the sediment was transferred up to the glacier surface due to basal ice layer deformation and redeposited as slumps, or to formation of similar structures due to short-distance sediment re-deposition by mass flows. This study revealed that it might not be possible to distinguish subglacial and supraglacial tills on the basis of micromorphology if the latter are derived from a subglacial position. The only noted difference was the presence of iron oxide cementation zones and carbonate dissolution features in supraglacial tills. These features were found in tills that were deposited at least a few years ago and are interpreted to be induced by early post-depositional processes involving porewater/sediment interactions.
Due to the unrecognized effect of tigecycline (TIG) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the present study has been undertaken in order to determine whether the drug can affect these cells in respect of their counts, and the production of IFN-γ, IL-17 (pro-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokines), IL-4 (anti-inflammatory and immune-protective cytokine), IL-10 and TGF-β (anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive cytokines). Murine lymphocytes were treated with TIG for 48 and 96 h at concentrations reflecting its plasma levels obtained in vivo at therapeutic doses, and at 10-fold lower concentrations. It was found that TIG neither affected substantially the percentage and absolute counts of entire CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations nor influenced the Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory/suppressive T cell subset. Furthermore, the percentages of IL-4-, IL-10-, IL-17- and TGF-β-producing CD4+ T cells were not altered following the exposure to TIG. Similarly, TIG did not influence IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells. Thus, with respect to the parameters evaluated, TIG does not seem to exert immune-suppressive and anti-inflammatory effects.
The aim of this study was to establish reference values for 2D and M-mode measurements in Dachshunds. Basic echocardiographic data, including M-mode, 2D and spectral Doppler measurements, was collected, analyzed and compared between 41 healthy Dachshunds and 50 other healthy dogs of similar weight. Echocardiographic reference intervals were prepared for Dachshunds. Dachshunds had a smaller left ventricular diameter in diastole and systole and a thicker septum than other dog breeds. Male Dachshunds had larger diastolic and systolic left ventricular diameter than females. Reference intervals for 2D and M-mode measurements in healthy Dachshunds differ from other dogs of similar weight and should be used for this breed to assess chamber enlargement.
The aim of our study was to determine the influence of L-carnitine (L-CAR) on the cellular parameters of hen erythrocytes during a 48 hour exposure to L-CAR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL in nutrient-deficient medium. Cell morphology, haemolysis, caspase 3/7 activity and glucose uptake (GU) were determined. The results showed a lower percentage of apoptotic cells and decreased haemolysis of erythrocytes treated for 48 hours at all the concentrations of L-CAR. The amino acid at 50 mg/mL inhibited the activity of proapoptotic caspase 3/7; however, it increased GU. In contrast, caspase 3/7 level was increased but GU was decreased in erythrocytes treated with 100 mg/mL of L-CAR when compared to the control. It may be hypothesized that reduction of apoptotic changes in hen erythrocytes may result from increased GU.
The reliable and rapid diagnosis of infectious animal diseases presents an exceptionally im- portant aspect when considering their control and prevention. The paper describes the compara- tive evaluation of two rapid isothermal amplification methods for diagnosis of African swine fever (ASF). The robustness of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the cross-priming amplification (CPA) were compared using samples obtained from ASF confirmed animals. Both assays were evaluated in order to define their diagnostic capabilities in terms of ASF diagnosis and reproducibility of the results. Investigations showed no cross-reactivity for other pig patho- gens and no significant differences in the specificity of both assays. The sensitivity of LAMP reached 90%, while that of CPA was 70%. In conclusion, both methods are suitable for imple- mentation in preliminary ASF diagnosis but further improvements are required to enhance their diagnostic sensitivity.
This study analysed the influence of montelukast (MON; 10-8 - 10-4 M), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist, on the contractility of the porcine uterine smooth muscle in the luteal phase of the oesterous cycle (n=8) and in early pregnancy (n=8). Stimulation of uterine strips in the luteal phase with MON has been shown to significantly reduce the amplitude of con- tractions, but not to affect the tension or frequency of contractions. A statistically significant tension increase and decrease in the frequency and amplitude of contractions was observed in pigs in early pregnancy. This suggests that MON has a different effect on the parameters under study in cyclic and pregnant pigs.
Blastocystis is a common enteric protozoan of humans and various species of animals. Culture and microscopic examination of fecal samples is the conventional method for identifying four major forms of Blastocystis (vacuolar, granular, non-vacuolar or cystic). In this article, we compared eight liquid media for cultivation of Blastocystis spp. Study material included fecal samples from clinically healthy pigs. Significant differences in the growth of Blastocystis on individual media were observed.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex, dynamic and hemostatic disorder which develops secondarily to a disease characterized with an imbalance in the pro-coagulant and anti-coagulant components of hemostasis. The aim of the study is to evaluate hemostatic dysfunc- tion and the DIC syndrome in cattle with displaced abomasum (DA), with using the hematologic analyses and an extensive coagulation profile in the 96 hour-period including before and after surgery. The animal material of the study consisted of 12 dairy cows diagnosed with displaced abomasum (9 LDA and 3 RDA without volvulus) in the 2-4 week period after parturation and with no other post-partum disease. In dairy cows diagnosed with DA, hematological, coagulomet- ric (PT, APTT, Fibrinogen) and coagulation factor analyses [D-Dimer, TAT (thrombin-anti- thrombin complex), ATIII (antithrombin III), PAI-1 (plazminogen activator inhibitor-1] were performed in blood samples obtained before the operation as well as 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 2, 5, 10, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the operation. In the DA cases, abnormalities were found in 6 of the 8 coagulation parameters. In the LDA and RDA groups, prolonged PT (sec), PT (INR) and APTT, hypofibrinogenemia, an increase in serum D-Dimer concentration at 72 and 96 hours after the operation and an increase in serum ATIII concentrations before and 30, 60 minutes and 2, 5, 72 and 96 hours after the operation was found (p<0.05). Hemostatic dysfunction and the risk of DIC developing in DA cases and continuing in the post-operative period was determined.
In this study, we propose a possible way of obtaining reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) free offspring from genetically valuable lines of Přeštice black-pied boars com- ming from PRRSV-positive pig breeding herds with the use of artificial insemination (AI). The ejaculates were collected from 4 different lines of boars. Samples of fresh semen were not detected with the virus and 12 sows were inseminated. Blood samples of sows and their offspring were repeatedly tested for the virus but the results were negative. We managed in this way to maintain the endangered population of this breed and obtain PRRSV-free offspring.
The aim of the study was to develop new laparoscopic technique for repeated recovery of sheep oocytes. Oocytes were aspirated with specifically designed catheter. It allowed to recover oocytes without ovary damage and to preserve very good quality of recovered oocytes. Fifteen ewes were oocytes donors. Oocytes were collected: one time (group I, n=15), two times (group II, n=15), three times (group III, n=10), four times (group IV, n=5). The endoscope was inserted into the abdominal cavity. Two trockars for putting the manipulators were inserted 15 cm cranial from the udder. Oocytes were collected by aspiration of the follicular fluid from the ovarian follicles. The observed clinical complications were: ovary bleeding and cicatrix at place of needle insertion, the fragmentary adhesion of infundibulum and ovary, adhesions of omentum and peri- toneum near the place where the grasping forceps were inserted and adhesion of ovary and uterus. Ovarian follicles (n=204) were aspirated, 130 (63.8%) oocytes were obtained. Out of 130 obtained oocytes, 112 were qualified for in vitro maturation. The remaining 18 oocytes (13.8%) were rejected due to cytoplasmic changes. The proposed technique allows for the collecting oocytes of good quality that can be used for IMV/IVF techniques and cloning.
Several human studies have reported that capsaicin has anti-pruritic effects. Moreover, sever- al concentrations of topical capsaicin have been used to alleviate itch. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-pruritic effect of capsaicin against histamine-induced pruritus compared with that of topical steroid or vehicle in 15 healthy beagles. Fifteen dogs were divided into three groups (n = 5 each), and treated topically with one of the following on the left side of the neck: capsaicin, positive control (steroid), or negative control (vehicle). Each treatment was performed twice daily for 8 days. All dogs were injected with histamine intradermally before treatment and on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th days of the treatment to evoke itch. Pruritus, wheal, and erythema intensity were assessed at each evaluation; cutaneous temperature was also recorded. On the final day, skin biopsy was conducted for histopathological evaluation for all dogs. The severity of pruritus was lesser in the capsaicin-treated group compared with the negative control group on day 8 (p<0.05). In the capsaicin and steroid groups, wheal size, erythema index, and cutaneous temperature also decreased compared with pretreatment. Histopathological evaluation showed that the capsaicin-treated group had a higher number of inflammatory cells in the dermis com- pared to the vehicle control group; however, the steroid-treated group showed less severe inflam- matory reactions than the vehicle control group. These results suggest that capsaicin cannot reduce inflammation but may play a helpful role in reducing pruritus in dogs.
Four and a half years of African Swine Fever (ASF) in population of free-ranging wild boars and domestic pigs revealed a number of novel insights into the disease epidemiology. Until November 20th, 2018, in total 3048 cases in wild boars and 213 outbreaks in domestic pigs have been confirmed. In spite of low contagiosity as well as low rate of ASF spread in wild boars the disease has an enormous socio-economical impact on the production of pigs in Poland. One of the most important aspects which directly influences the dynamics of ASF spread is the unpredictable hu- man activity. Another important factor responsible for continuous ASF spread is fast recovery of wild boar population in spite of efforts taken by hunters. Assuming our scientific opinion ASF seems to be present in wildlife for the incoming few or several years. Therefore, extraordinary measures should be prepared and undertaken to limit the risk of the occurrence of future out- breaks in domestic pigs. One of the most crucial issues is implementation of strict biosecurity measures in all domestic pigs holdings.
A clinical trial was performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of osaterone acetate (OSA) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs. Osaterone acetate (Ypozane, Virbac) was administered orally at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight once a day for seven days to 23 dogs with BPH. During the 28-day trial, the dogs were monitored five times for their clinical signs and prostate volume. The OSA treatment promoted rapid reduction of clinical scores to 73.2% on day 7 and to 5.9% on day 28 (p<0.05). Osaterone acetate induced the complete clinical remission in approximately 83.0% of the dogs on day 28. The prostate volume regressed to 64.3% of the pretreatment volume after two weeks of the treatment (p<0.05) and to 54.7% at the end of the trial (p<0.05). In conclusion, OSA quickly reduced clinical signs and volume of the prostate glands in dogs with BPH.
The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers have experienced series of structural modifications and improvements. Example of such modifications are set-point weighting and fractional ordering. While the former is to achieve two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) ability of set-point tracking and disturbance rejection, the latter is to ensure smooth control action. Therefore, this paper reviews various forms of PID controllers and provides a comparative analysis of 2DOF PID and 2DOF fractional order PID (FOPID) controllers. The paper also discusses the conversion of one PID form to another. For the comparative analysis of the various controllers, a class of unstable systems are considered. Simulation result shows that in most cases the conversion from one form to another does not significantly affect the performance of the system. It is also observed that the 2DOF controllers (2DOF PID and 2DOF FOPID) improved significantly the performance of the ordinary PID controllers.
A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by examples.
The recently proposed q-rung orthopair fuzzy set (q-ROFS) characterized by a membership degree and a non-membership degree is powerful tool for handling uncertainty and vagueness. This paper proposes the concept of q-rung orthopair linguistic set (q-ROLS) by combining the linguistic term sets with q-ROFSs. Thereafter, we investigate multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) with q-rung orthopair linguistic information. To aggregate q-rung orthopair linguistic numbers ( q-ROLNs), we extend the Heronian mean (HM) to q-ROLSs and propose a family of q-rung orthopair linguistic Heronian mean operators, such as the q-rung orthopair linguistic Heronian mean (q-ROLHM) operator, the q-rung orthopair linguistic weighted Heronian mean (q-ROLWHM) operator, the q-rung orthopair linguistic geometric Heronian mean (q-ROLGHM) operator and the q-rung orthopair linguistic weighted geometric Heronian mean (q-ROLWGHM) operator. Some desirable properties and special cases of the proposed operators are discussed. Further, we develop a novel approach to MAGDM within q-rung orthopair linguistic context based on the proposed operators. A numerical instance is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiorities of the proposed method.