Wyniki wyszukiwania

Filtruj wyniki

  • Obiekty grupowe
  • Autorzy publikacji
  • Słowa kluczowe
  • Data
  • Typ

Wyniki wyszukiwania

Wyników: 237
Wyników na stronie: 25 50 75
Sortuj wg:

Abstrakt

Exposure of green algae Chlorella vulgaris to short-term UV-B radiation (280 nm – 315 nm) induced several changes in the function of photosystem II (PS II) studied by means of chlorophyll fluorescence (FL) and oxygen evolving. The intensity of photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity of algae suspension decreased in a similar way to the FL parameter values in proportion to the applied dose of UV-B radiation (0.0, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8 kJ·m-2). The correlation between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FO ratio was better than that between photosynthetic oxygen evolving intensity and FV/FM. The vitality index (Rfd) in the UV-B irradiated algae strongly decreased, compared to the control, which indicates inhibition of potential CO2 fixation and cooperation between light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. It may indicate damage of Rubisco.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

The present work deals with population-based meiotic studies on eight species belonging to four genera of the family Commelinaceae from different regions of Kangra Valley which is well known for its rich floristic diversity. At the world level, different cytotypes for four species such as Commelina hasskarlii (2n = 22, 60), C. kurzii (2n = 60), Murdannia nudiflora (2n = 24) and M. spirata (2n = 24) have been recorded for the first time at various ploidy levels. Additionally, from India, the new chromosome count for Tradescantia pallida (2n = 24) has been reported at the tetraploid level. The course of meiosis has been found to be normal in all the populations of Commelina benghalensis, C. paludosa, Murdannia nudiflora and M. spirata while four species, Commelina hasskarlii, C. kurzii, Cyanotis cristata and Tradescantia pallida have shown a normal to abnormal meiotic course in different populations. These meiotic abnormalities have revealed a clear effect on the pollen size and pollen fertility.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

During the research interaction of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) in epinasty and/or hyponasty, as well as petiole growth of Bryophyllum calycinum were investigated. Exogenously applied IAA as a lanolin paste was extremely effective to induce epinasty and/or hyponasty accompanied with petiole elongation in intact B. calycinum. Application of IAA around or to the upper side of the petiole was much more effective than that to the lower side, suggesting that petiole epidermal cells on the adaxial side of B. calycinum are more sensitive and/or susceptive to IAA than those on the abaxial one. This is supported by the fact that not only the second curvature but also the first one in B. calycinum was enhanced by application of IAA to the upper side of the petiole. The degree of epinasty and/or hyponasty induced by IAA is strongly related to the increase of petiole growth. On the other hand, JA-Me significantly inhibited IAA-inducing epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth in intact B. calycinum. When detached leaves with petioles were placed leaf blade face down, clear petiole bending was observed. However, no petiole bending was found when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face up. Exogenously applied IAA to petioles was significantly effective to induce and/or stimulate petiole bending in placing detached leaves of B. calycinum face down but ethephon was not, suggesting that transport and/or movement of endogenous auxin produced in the leaf blade are necessary to induce petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum and that ethylene derived from exogenously applied IAA does not play an important role in epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole bending in B. calycinum. The mechanisms of IAA-enhancing and JA-Me-inhibiting epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth are intensively discussed.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Holoparasitic genera within the family Orobanchaceae are characterized by greatly reduced vegetative organs; therefore, molecular analysis has proved to be a useful tool in solving taxonomic problems in this family. For this purpose, we studied all species of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche occurring in Central Europe, specifically in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Austria, supplemented by samples mainly from Spain, France, Germany, and Ukraine. They were investigated using nuclear sequences (ITS region) and a plastid trnLtrnF region. The aim of this study was to examine phylogenetic relationships within Orobanche and Phelipanche from Central Europe; we focused on problematic species and aggregates, recent taxonomic changes in these (rank and secondary ranks), and host ranges. The most interesting results concern the exlusion of O. mayeri from O. alsatica aggr. Additionally, following the rules of traditional taxonomy, the correct names and types of some secondary ranks are given and, as a result of this, a new combination below the Phelipanche genus is made (P. sect. Trionychon). The host ranges of the investigated species in Central Europe include 102 species from 12 families, most often from Asteraceae. For this purpose, ca. 400 localities were examined in the field. Moreover, data acquired from the literature and European and Asian herbaria were used.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Salt stress causes severe reduction in the growth and yield of rice plants. The ability to maintain cellular ion homeostasis is of importance to help the plant survive under salt stress. Salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1), a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, has been proven to play critical roles in Na+ exclusion out of the cell, hence contributing to salt tolerance in plants. In this study, we analyzed the natural nucleotide polymorphisms occuring within the entire coding sequence as well as the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene by comparing the sequences of two contrasting rice genotypes, namely, Nipponbare (salt-sensitive) and Pokkali (salt-resistant). In total, six nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the coding sequence, and 44 nucleotide substitutions, 225-bp-insertion and 65-bp-deletion were observed in the upstream region of the OsSOS1 gene. Futher in silico analysis revealed that two out of six nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence were non-synonymous (A1600G, G2204A) which led to two amino acid substitutions (T534A, S735N, respectively) positioned in the C-terminal domain of OsSOS1 transporter, but caused no effect on protein properties. In the upstream region of OsSOS1 gene, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms and two INDELs were identified, in which nucleotide substitutions at position -1392, -1389, -822, -583, +57 and an insertion at position -1035 caused change in cis-regulatory elements. Analysis of OsSOS1 expression revealed that salt induced the expression of the gene in the roots, but not in the leaves in both investigated rice cultivars.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Hordeum murinum L. is a polyploid complex of thermophilic, annual, zoochoric grasses of Mediterranean–Irano- Turanian origin that is commonly present in Europe. H. murinum complex includes three annual and most often autogamous taxa: glaucum, leporinum and murinum. The variation of nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast microsatellites and chloroplast SNP-based PCR-RFLP markers of H. murinum from Europe was analyzed in order to investigate its migration. The chloroplast markers revealed three distinct haplotypes. Two of them are characteristic of leporinum and murinum. A geographical pattern of haplotypes has been detected, however it does not correspond to the known patterns of migration routes in the Holocene. Geographic distribution of genotypes defined by nuclear microsatellites has shown a geographic trend that may link the migration of leporinum and murinum with the spread of Neolithic agriculture in Europe. This study also confirms genetic distinction of glaucum, as well as genetic uniformity of murinum and leporinum.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

The major aim of the study was to identify the relationships of photosynthetic pigments with elemental contents of plants exposed to various ambient air conditions. Lolium multiflorum L. plants were exposed at five sites varying in environmental characteristics, including potential air pollution levels. The effect of air pollution by trace elements on plants was examined. Selected trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Cr), some macro-elements as well as chlorophyll content were measured after each of four series. The graphical visualization revealed groups of sites with similar response of elements and chlorophyll contents. Sites located outside the city were grouped into one, and two urban sites were grouped into another. The trace element contents were relatively low and, excluding Ni and As, did not reach toxic levels in dry mass of leaves. However, some relations could be noted, which indicates the sensitivity of the photosynthetic process even at low levels of trace elements in ambient air. Chlorophyll b was found to be more sensitive to most of the analyzed trace elements than chlorophyll a. The results revealed chlorophylls, K and Na as indicators of plant stress caused by trace elements present in ambient air, even at relatively low levels.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract Chromosome numbers for 13 species of Hieracium L. s.str. from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Poland and Romania are given and their metaphase plates are illustrated. Chromosome numbers are published for the first time for H. djimilense s.lat. 2n=3x=27, H. fiekii R. Uechtr. 2n=3x=27, H. glabrescens (F. W. Schultz) Murr 2n=3x=27, H. juranomorphum Zahn 2n=3x=27, H. sparsiflorum subsp. sparsiceps Zahn 2n=3x=27 and H. sparsum subsp. naegelianiforme Behr & Zahn 2n=3x=27.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract Pollen grains of 15 species of the genus Sansevieria were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains were single, but dyads were also found. The basic shape of the pollen grains (with chemical treatment) was subprolate, prolate and prolate-spheroidal and the pollen grains were large (> 50 mm). The pollen grains observed in SEM were prolate-spheroidal, subprolate, prolate and perprolate. The aperture occupied nearly the entire distal hemisphere. The surface of non-apertural areas was microreticulate, psilate-perforate, fossulate and verrucate. The surface of the apertural area was psilate-perforate-verrucate, microreticulate-verrucategemmate and psilate-perforate. The tectum was homogeneous, with perforations. Our results suggest that some species cannot be separated based on pollen grain morphology, but only may be categorized into their groups. The present study investigated pollen grain morphology in eleven species for the first time in terms of pollen micromorphology and provided some important new data.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract Karyology of eleven species of Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma from Poland has been studied. Somatic chromosome numbers are given for the following species: T. bellicum, T. brachyglossum, T. cristatum, T. disseminatum, T. dissimile, T. lacistophyllum, T. parnassicum, T. plumbeum, T. proximum, T. scanicum, and T. tenuilobum. Although the hypertriploid chromosome number was previously reported in Poland for T. lacistophyllum, T. parnassicum, T. scanicum, and T. tenuilobum, we proved the triploid chromosome number 2n = 24 in all the species investigated, which is consistent with the data reported from other regions of Europe. The chromosome numbers of T. bellicum, T. cristatum, T. disseminatum, T. dissimile, T. plumbeum, and T. proximum growing in Poland are published for the first time.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract Floral epidermal cells of most species of Bulbophyllum Thouars studied to date produce both lipid-rich food-rewards and fragrance. Since fragrances largely consist of terpenoids and have an affinity for lipophilic stains, the simultaneous presence of lipid-rich food-rewards frustrates identification of fragrance-secreting cells by conventional histochemistry. Furthermore, since both lipid-rich food-rewards and fragrances are probably synthesized by a similar complement of organelles, interpretation of TEM images can prove difficult. All members of section Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f. investigated to date, however, are unusual in their secretion of a predominantly proteinaceous food-reward, and lipids are seemingly absent. This might enable their use as models for the identification and characterization of fragrance-secreting tissues and organelles. Three members of sect. Racemosae were chosen, namely Bulbophyllum dissitiflorum Seidenf., B. lilacinum Ridl. and B. tricorne Seidenf. & Smitinand. All produced food-rewards. Of these, one (B. dissitiflorum) lacked fragrance and was used as a control, whereas the remaining two species produced fragrance. Having established that the food-reward was mainly proteinaceous in each case, and did not test positively for lipid, we undertook further histochemical investigations, as well as light microscopy, SEM and TEM. Specialized palisade-like epidermal cells of all species contained protein bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum consistent with the production and secretion of a protein-rich food-reward. Cuticular pores were also present. In fragrant species, these cells also contained abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, oil droplets and many, well-developed, spherical plastids with numerous plastoglobuli, similar to those found in the osmophores (fragrance-producing structures) of other orchids. Indeterminate, osmiophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were also present. By contrast, the non-fragrant species lacked oil droplets and other osmiophilic inclusions and the plastids were scant, poorly developed, often elongate or irregular in shape and contained few plastoglobuli. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum was also less frequent. Since food-rewards tested negatively for lipid, it is probable that any oil droplets present were involved in fragrance production, especially since they were absent from the non-fragrant species. Thus, the unusual absence of lipids from the food-rewards of sect. Racemosae provided a rare opportunity, permitting, for the first time, the unraveling of these two secretory processes (food-reward and fragrance) in Bulbophyllum and clearly demonstrating the plasticity of these cells and their dual role in secretion.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract Viola uliginosa (bog violet) is a declining species throughout its range due to – mostly anthropogenic – drying out of the wet habitats it occupies. Using AFLP markers, we aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in Polish populations, that may give an insight into the situation of plant populations facing rapid loss of natural habitats. Bog violet from several dispersed Polish populations is generally characterized by very low genetic diversity (HT = 0.048), even lower than several other endangered violets; therefore, we suggest that it should preserve at least EN rank in the red lists/red data books. The mean gene diversity within all populations (HS) was much lower than gene diversity (GST) between populations (0.020 versus 0.583, respectively) which supports the prevalence of clonal propagation of the species (mainly by stolons) but may also point to some significance of autogamy in cleisto- and chasmogamous flowers. A high FST value and the Mantel test for all populations revealed significant isolation by distance. Geographically neighboring pairs of populations formed genetic clusters supported by all (in the case of two closest populations) or most statistical analyses applied. Special attention should be paid to the locus classicus of the species in Rząska, consisting of a small number of individuals, forming a genetically distinct group, revealing very low gene diversity (Hj = 0.009) and the longest genetic distance to the remaining populations. Our results can contribute to planning future protection measures for the species at this and other locations. Genetic structure of the studied populations suggests local affinities of populations but does not generally support hypothesized recent continuity of V. uliginosa range along the river valleys of southern Poland; this view may, however, be altered with widening of the scope of studied populations and chosen molecular markers.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract This is the first study to report an efficient anther culture (AC) method for spelt wheat, which has an increasing importance not only in applied research but also in organic farming and changing nutritional standards. In this study, an efficient AC protocol has been described for ‘GK Fehér’ spelt wheat. The number of AC-derived embryo-like structures (ELS) was 62.2/100 anthers, from which we were able to regenerate 30.6 green plantlets per 100 anthers. The percentage of green plantlets production was 89.0% among the regenerated plantlets, while the phenomenon of albinism was restricted (3.8/100 anthers). Altogether, from AC of ‘GK Fehér’ 306 green plantlets were produced in vitro and 241 plants were acclimatized to the greenhouse conditions. Based on ploidy level analyses, 83 spontaneous doubled haploid (DH) plants were produced (8.3 DH plants/100 anthers), so the percentage of spontaneous rediploidization was 34.4%. The spontaneous DH plants produced fertile spikes, while a few seeds were harvested from seven partially fertile plants.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract Plants belonging to the family Oleaceae have been traditionally used in treatment of various inflammatory skin disorders. One of the most well-known species is Olea europaea L. (olive), cultivated in the Mediterranean countries. Another species is Ligustrum vulgare L. (common privet), occurring particularly in Northern Europe and Asia. The aim of the study was a comparison of the composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of O. europaea and L. vulgare (HPLC-DAD-MS), and determination of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the content of the major compound, oleuropein. Secondly, we aimed to study the protective effect of extracts on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by human fibroblast cells (NHDF), cell viability (MTT assay), and apoptosis rate (Annexin V/propidium iodide staining) after UVA-irradiation. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to identify compounds belonging to the groups of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids and secoiridoids in the extracts. The compounds from the group of lignans (olivil) were identified as being unique to O. europaea extracts. Echinacoside, ligustroflavone and ligustaloside A were identified in L. vulgare extracts in contrast to olive preparations. It was established that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from leaves of both species, except the privet aqueous extract at a concentration of 5 μg/ml, did not show any significant inhibition of ROS production after UVA-irradiation in the model of NHDF cell line. The aqueous extracts of both species at concentrations of 5 and 25 μg/ml had a protective effect on the viability of UVA-treated cells in contrast to the ethanolic extract. In conclusion, no significant difference in the activity of olive and privet leaf extracts has been observed, which suggests that both plant materials’ extracts, particularly aqueous ones, are effective herbal medicines and photoprotectors, which – to some extent – confirms the use of their preparations in skin disorders.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract We aimed to produce tissue cultures and plant regeneration from endangered Crocus species: C. scepusiensis, C. tommasinianus, C. vittatus (“Verni” series of the genus) and C. banaticus. For initiation of cultures we used a plant growth regulator (PGR) combination used for in vitro culture of saffron and its relatives: 10 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoot tips of young seedlings (C. scepusiensis) and corms (for the rest of species) were used as explants. C. scepusiensis explants developed into organogenic calli. On media with decreased NAA and with or without increased BA concentration, calli produced stigma-like structures and/or shoots and whole plants. In the other species, callus initiation medium induced callus formation with abundant somatic embryos. In C. tommasinianus, embryos developed shoots when auxin content of medium was decreased. In C. banaticus, a decrease of auxin with or without an increase in cytokinin content led to shoot or whole plant regeneration, as in C. scepusiensis. In the case of C. vittatus and C. banaticus, initiation and/or maintenance of cultures on indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and increased sucrose concentration stimulated whole plant regeneration and in vitro cormlet development. C. scepusiensis and the rest of cultures (organogenic vs. embryogenic) differed at the biochemical level: C. scepusiensis cultures had higher (yet still low) enzymatic antioxidant (catalase, peroxidase) activities. With respect to catalase isoenzyme patterns, C. banaticus was different from the rest of cultures, demonstrating its distinct taxonomical position. Besides germplasm preservation use of the present cultures, they have a potential biotechnological value.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract The fern Platycerium bifurcatum is a valuable component of the flora of tropical forests, where degradation of local ecosystems and changes in lighting conditions occur due to the increasing anthropogenic pressure. In ferns, phytochrome mechanism responsible for the response to changes in the value of R/FR differs from the mechanism observed in spermatophytes. This study analyzed the course of ontogenesis of nest leaves in P. bifurcatum at two values of the R/FR ratio, corresponding to shadow conditions (low R/FR) and intense insolation (high R/FR). The work used only non-destructive research analysis, such as measurements of reflectance of radiation from the leaves, their blue-green and red fluorescence, and the chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics. This allowed tracing the development and aging processes in the same leaves. Nest leaves are characterized by short, intense growth and rapid senescence. The study identified four stages of development of the studied leaves related to morphological and anatomical structure and changing photochemical efficiency of PSII. Under the high R/FR ratio, the rate of ontogenesis of the leaf lamina was much slower than under the low R/FR value. As shown, the rapid aging of the leaves was correlated with faster decline of the chlorophyll content. It was shown that leaf senescence was accompanied by accumulation of polyphenols, anthocyanins and carotenoids on the basis of reflectance and fluorescence measurements in the blue-green range.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract This study deals with populations of the European-South-Siberian geoelement Adenophora liliifolia (L.) A. DC. in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland, where this species has its European periphery distribution. We studied the population size, genetic variability, site conditions, and vegetation units in which A. liliifolia grows. Recent and historical localities of A. liliifolia were ranked into six vegetation units of both forest and non-forest character. A phytosociological survey showed differences in the species composition among localities. Only a weak pattern of population structure was observed (only 22% of total genetic variation present at the interpopulation level, AMOVA analysis), with moderate values for gene diversity (Hj = 0.141) and polymorphism (P = 27.6%). Neighbor-joining and Bayesian clusterings suggest a similar genetic background for most of the populations from Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Poland, contrary to the populations from Hungary, Romania, as well as two populations from Central and South Slovakia. This might be explained by a relatively recent fragmentation of the A. liliifolia populations in Central Europe. Nevertheless, it seems that several populations in Romania, South Hungary, and Slovakia were isolated for a longer period of time and their genetic differentiation is more evident.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract The male-specific DNA markers are very useful in molecular sexing of non-flowering plants and seeds of dioecious species. In this paper we identified ten Y chromosome-specific RAPD primers suitable for identification of male plants in three Cannabaceae species with sex chromosomes (Humulus lupulus, XX/XY; H. japonicus, XX/XY1Y2; Cannabis sativa, XX/XY). Basing on the nucleotide sequence of the OPJ-09 RAPD product we developed the HJY09 SCAR marker, which is very efficient in sexing of Japanese hop.
Przejdź do artykułu

Abstrakt

Abstract Chromosome numbers for 12 Hieracium s.str. species from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania and Serbia are given and their metaphase plates are illustrated. Chromosome numbers are published for the first time for H. albinum Fries 2n=4x=36, H. bukovicae Rohlena & Zahn; 2n=3x=27, H. retyezatense subsp. subatratiforme Neičeff & Zahn 2n=4x=36, H. velenovskyi Freyn 2n=3x=27, as well as two undescribed species belonging to the H. bohatschianum agg. 2n=4x=36 and H. nigrescens agg. 2n=4x=36 and a hybrid between H. naegelianum Pančić and H. bifidum s.lat. 2n=4x=36.
Przejdź do artykułu

Ta strona wykorzystuje pliki 'cookies'. Więcej informacji