The paper presents the least admissible dimensions of black lines of spatial object images, according to Saliszczew, adjusted to the needs of database generalization. It is pointed out, that the adjusted dimensions are in agreement with the cartographic norm included in the National Map Accuracy Standards , and their application to the generalization 1 will allow, for any map scale, the determination of the: • value of the scale-dependent parameter of the generalization process, without user action; • measure of recognizability of the shortest black line section on the map, what helps to obtain unique results of line generalization; • measure of recognizability of black lines in the image – using a standard (elementary triangle) – helpful in obtaining unique result of line simplification, and an assessment of the process; • recognizability distance between lines of close buildings, securing unique aggregation of them; • verification of spatial object image lines visualization. The new solutions were tested with the Douglas-Peucker (1973) generalization algorithm, modified by the author, which treats the minimal dimensions as geometric attributes, while object classes and their data hierarchy as descriptive attributes. This approach secures uniqueness of results on any level of generalization process, in which data of spatial objects in the DLM model are transformed to conform with the requirements for the DCM model data.
We evaluated the performance of nine machine learning regression algorithms and their ensembles for sub-pixel estimation of impervious areas coverages from Landsat imagery. The accuracy of imperviousness mapping in individual time points was assessed based on RMSE, MAE and R 2 . These measures were also used for the assessment of imperviousness change intensity estimations. The applicability for detection of relevant changes in impervious areas coverages at sub-pixel level was evaluated using overall accuracy, F-measure and ROC Area Under Curve. The results proved that Cubist algorithm may be advised for Landsat-based mapping of imperviousness for single dates. Stochastic gradient boosting of regression trees (GBM) may be also considered for this purpose. However, Random Forest algorithm is endorsed for both imperviousness change detection and mapping of its intensity. In all applications the heterogeneous model ensembles performed at least as well as the best individual models or better. They may be recommended for improving the quality of sub-pixel imperviousness and imperviousness change mapping. The study revealed also limitations of the investigated methodology for detection of subtle changes of imperviousness inside the pixel. None of the tested approaches was able to reliably classify changed and non-changed pixels if the relevant change threshold was set as one or three percent. Also for five percent change threshold most of algorithms did not ensure that the accuracy of change map is higher than the accuracy of random classifier. For the threshold of relevant change set as ten percent all approaches performed satisfactory.
One of the fundamental problems of modern geodesy is precise de fi nition of the gravitational fi eld and its changes in time. This is essential in positioning and navigation, geophysics, geodynamics, oceanography and other sciences related to the climate and Earth’s environment. One of the major sources of gravity data is satellite altimetry that provides gravity data with almost 75% surface of the Earth. Satellite altimetry also provides data to study local, regional and global geophysical processes, the geoid model in the areas of oceans and seas. This technique can be successfully used to study the ocean mean dynamic topography. The results of the investigations and possible products of altimetry will provide a good material for the GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) and institutions of IAS (International Altimetry Service). This paper presents the achievements in satellite altimetry in all the above disciplines obtained in the last years. First very shorly basic concept of satellite altimetry is given. In order to obtain the highest accuracy on range measurements over the ocean improved of altimetry waveforms performed on the ground is described. Next, signi fi cant improvements of sea and ocean gravity anomalies models developed presently is shown. Study of sea level and its extremes examined, around European and Australian coasts using tide gauges data and satellite altimetry measurements were described. Then investigations of the phenomenon of the ocean tides, calibration of altimeters, studies of rivers and ice-sheets in the last years are given.
Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefits, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.
The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplified by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland’s current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifiable to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifications in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.
The cadastral data, including land parcels, are the basic reference data for presenting various objects collected in spatial databases. Easy access to up-to-date records is a very important matter for the individuals and institutions using spatial data infrastructure. The primary objective of the study was to check the current accessibility of cadastral data as well as to verify how current and complete they are. The author started researching this topic in 2007, i.e. from the moment the Team for National Spatial Data Infrastructure developed documentation concerning the standard of publishing cadastral data with the use of the WMS. Since ten years, the author was monitoring the status of cadastral data publishing in various districts as well as participated in data publishing in many districts. In 2017, when only half of the districts published WMS services from cadastral data, the questions arise: why is it so and how to change this unfavourable status? As a result of the tests performed, it was found that the status of publishing cadastral data is still far from perfect. The quality of the offered web services varies and, unfortunately, many services offer poor performance; moreover, there are plenty services that do not operate at all.
In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have gained great importance in terms of the benefits it provides such as precise geodetic point positioning, determining crustal deformations, navigation, vehicle monitoring systems and meteorological applications etc. As in Turkey, for this purpose, each country has set up its own GNSS station networks like Turkish National Permanent RTK Network analyzed precise station coordinates and velocities together with the International GNSS Service , Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network and Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network (TNPGN) stations not only are utilized as precise positioning but also GNSS meteorology studies so total number of stations are increased. This work is related to the reactivated of the TRAB IGS station which was established in Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering. Within the COST ES1206 Action (GNSS4SWEC) KTU analysis center was established and Trop-NET system developed by Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP, RIGTC) in order to troposphere monitoring. The project titled “Using Regional GNSS Networks to Strengthen Severe Weather Prediction” was accepted to the scientific and technological research council of Turkey (TUBITAK). With this project, we will design 2 new constructed GNSS reference station network. Using observation data of network, we will compare water vapor distribution derived by GNSS Meteorology and GNSS Tomography. At this time, KTU AC was accepted as E-GVAP Analysis Centre in December 2016. KTU reference station is aimed to be a member of the EUREF network with these studies.
The dedicated gravity satellite missions, in particular the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission launched in 2002, provide unique data for studying temporal variations of mass distribution in the Earth’s system, and thereby, the geometry and the gravity field changes of the Earth. The main objective of this contribution is to estimate physical height (e.g. the orthometric/normal height) changes over Central Europe using GRACE satellite mission data as well as to analyse them and model over the selected study area. Physical height changes were estimated from temporal variations of height anomalies and vertical displacements of the Earth surface being determined over the investigated area. The release 5 (RL05) GRACE-based global geopotential models as well as load Love numbers from the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) were used as input data. Analysis of the estimated physical height changes and their modelling were performed using two methods: the seasonal decomposition method and the PCA/ EOF (Principal Component Analysis/Empirical Orthogonal Function) method and the differences obtained were discussed. The main findings reveal that physical height changes over the selected study area reach up to 22.8 mm. The obtained physical height changes can be modelled with an accuracy of 1.4 mm using the seasonal decomposition method.
Population density varies sharply from place to place on the whole territory of Poland. The largest number of people per 1 km2 is 21,531, while uninhabited areas account for about 48% of the country. Such uneven, non-Gaussian distribution of the data causes some difficulty in choosing the classification method in geometric choropleth maps. A thorough evaluation of a geometric choropleth map of population data is not possible using only traditional indicators such as the Tabular Accuracy Index (TAI). That is why the aim of the article is to develop an innovative index based on distance analysis and neighbour analysis of grid cells. Two indexes have been suggested in this paper: the Spatial Distance Index (SDI) and the Spatial Contiguity Index (SCI). The paper discusses the use of five classification methods to evaluate choropleth maps of population data, like head-tail breaks, natural breaks, equal intervals, quantile, and geometrical intervals. A comprehensive assessment of such geometric choropleth maps is also done. The research was conducted for the whole territory of Poland, using data from the 2011 National Census of Population and Housing. Population data are presented in the 1km grid. The results of the analysis are shown on thematic maps. A compatibility of the choropleth maps with urban-rural typology of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) was also checked.
This article analyzes the technology of creating and updating a digital topographic map using the method of mapping (generalization) on an updated map with a scale of 1 : 25;000 based on the source cartographic material. The main issue in the creation of digital maps is the study of map production accuracy and error analysis arising from the process of map production. When determining the quality of a digital map, the completeness and accuracy of object and terrain mapping are evaluated. The correctness of object identification, the logical consistency of the structure, the and representation of objects are assessed. The main and the most effective method, allowing to take into account displacement errors for the relief during image processing, is orthotransformation, but the fragment used to update the digital topographic map needs additional verification of its compliance with the scale requirements of the map. Instrumental survey will help to clearly identify areas of space image closer to nadir points and to reject poor quality material. The software used for building geodetic control network should provide stable results of accuracy regardless on the scale of mapping, the physical and geographical conditions of the work area or the conditions of aerial photography.
Activities related to parking of transport, today have become widespread. While parking taxes for vehicles are one of the most important sources of local budgets in countries with established traditions of local government. The tax for parking spaces for vehicles is a relatively new collection in the tax system of Ukraine, which is due to the recent reform in tax legislation. Therefore, the scientific coverage of this subject is currently insufficiently investigated. In the article typical permissive documents are considered when decorating parking lots, and dependence that contradicts the current land legislation affects local revenues to the budget is established. The discrepancy between the general approaches of payment for land is established. For comparison, the approach of parking taxation, for which there is no land management documentation, and the main reason is the permission from the public enterprise for the maintenance of green spaces is considered. The analysis of the current state of the transport scheme of the city shows that in conditions of growth of elaborate road schemes and with insufficient rates of increase in its capacity to contain traffic growth it is advisable to increase the carrying capacity of transport lines and the development of mass passenger transport in cities with a planned increase in average capacity of rolling stock. Also, using traffic management is necessary to ensure that special conditions for the passage of the public transport network.
Polish spatial data infrastructure dates back 2010, the year when the Spatial Information Infrastructure Act transposing INSPIRE Directive entered into force. The present study provides valuable insight into the current status of Polish spatial data infrastructure (PSDI) as well as lessons learnt from so far efforts in implementing the principles and provisions of the INSPIRE Directive. Particular respect is given to policy, interoperability of data as well as cooperation between actors involved in PSDI establishment and maintenance. Data managed by the Surveyor General (SG), perceived as a backbone of a spatial data infrastructure, are of special importance. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations for further developments are given to foster SDI implementation in Poland. Results of the analysis clearly show that Polish spatial data infrastructure is in line with INSPIRE, and in a half of way being fully operational.
In this article, the classification of underground space types is analyzed. It is established that there are objects that are taxed in the tax code of Ukraine and there are those that are not taxed. The results of the research are justified by the lack of mechanisms and technical solutions of three-dimensional objects of commercial space taxation, which have been intensively developing in Ukraine. The ways of solving legal conflicts regarding registration and taxation of real estate objects are suggested. Based on the study of the legislative base and normative legal documents in the sphere of land relations, a classifier of three-dimensional space objects, which today are fully or partially used for commercial purposes in various types of economic activity has been proposed. The analysis of the regulatory and legal framework regarding the taxation of underground space facilities has been carried out. Objects for which the taxation of land is charged and those objects for which there is no charge for the use of underground space have been identified. A methodology for the justified calculation of a decreasing percentage ratio for calculating a normative monetary evaluation (NME) is developed for the cases where the object of an underground commercial space is located at a distance from the center in one of the proposed zones.
Technical development, new applications and requests for increased accuracy in georeferencing are setting new demands for accuracy and reliability of reference frames. Due to crustal deformations and local movements of benchmarks, a static reference network deteriorates with time, thus eventually requiring update of the whole system. Technically, renewal of a reference frame is straightforward and should be done whenever enough new data or updated information exist to get an improvement in accuracy. An example is the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, ITRF, which is renewed regularly. The situation is more complicated with national reference frames which may have been given a legal status, and parameters defined by the national legislation. Even without that, renewal and implementation of such a frame is a multi-million euro project taking years to complete. Crustal deformations and movements deteriorate static reference frames (defined by fixed/static coordinates of benchmarks) with time. Eventually, distortions in a static reference frame will become bigger than the uncertainties of GNSS measurements, thus deteriorating the obtainable accuracy of the measurement technique. Instead of a static reference frame, one can use semi-kinematic or kinematic approach where either the transformation from global to the national reference frame or the coordinates of reference frame benchmarks are time-dependent. In this paper we give a short overview of the topic, and discuss on technical issues and future aspects of the reference frames in the viewpoint of National Mapping and Cadastre Authorities (NMA) with an example on the national strategy in Finland.
The aim of the research was to analyze the possibility of using mobile laser scanning systems to acquire information for production and/or updating of a basic map and to propose a no-reference index of this accuracy assessment. Point clouds have been analyzed in terms of content of interpretation and geometric potential. For this purpose, the accuracy of point clouds with a georeference assigned to the base map objects was examined. In order to conduct reference measurements, a geodetic network was designed and also additional static laser scanning data has been used. The analysis of mobile laser scanning (MLS) data accuracy was conducted with the use of 395 check points. In the paper, application of the total Error of Position of the base-map Objects acquired with the use of MLS was proposed. Research results were related to reference total station measurements. The resulting error values indicate the possibility to use an MLS point cloud in order to accurately determine coordinates for individual objects for the purposes of standard surveying studies, e.g. for updating some elements of the base map content. Nevertheless, acquiring MLS point clouds with satisfying accuracy not always is possible, unless specific resolution condition is fulfilled. The paper presents results of accuracy evaluation in different classes of base-map elements and objects.
The construction of transmission infrastructure and its functioning imposes the obligation on transmission companies to have a legal title to land. Both in Poland and in Canada, the title particularly results from the established easements subject to registration in public information systems. Due to different historical, social, and economic conditions, the specificity of legal regulations and technical solutions related to the registration of rights to land property is different in both countries. This results from the functioning and the substantive scope of particular systems of information on land property. Such systems are regulated by independent, internal rules of each of the countries. In Poland, easement is subject to registration in the land and mortgage register. In Canada, a federation country, it depends on legal regulations of particular provinces. The research objective of the article is the analysis of the way of registration of easements established for transmission companies in Poland and in Canada in the Ontario and Quebec provinces. The analysis covers the scope of registration of the said right in systems of information on land property. The evaluation of the applied solutions particularly involves pointing out those which to the greatest extent guarantee the safety of land property turnover. The best result is obtained in Canada in the Ontario province.
On May 7, 2010 the act dated March 4, 2010 on the spatial information infrastructure was published which transposes the European Parliament and the European Council Directive No 2007/2/WE dated March 14, 2007 established the spatial information infrastructure (INSPIRE) in the European Community. This act introduced basic changes to the binding Act, i.e. the Law of Geodesy and Cartography and, as the consequence, the demand to develop various administrative decrees occurred. The authors of the paper present the analysis of the existing conditions of the cadastre, the task of governmental and public government administration, related to demands concerning the cadastral reforms, following the act on the spatial information infrastructure and they discuss possibilities to perform such reforms at the local and national scales.
The method that is proposed in the present paper is a special case of squared M split estimation. It concerns a direct estimation of the shift between the parameters of the functional models of geodetic observations. The shift in question may result from, for example, deformation of a geodetic network or other non-random disturbances that may influence coordinates of the network points. The paper also presents the example where such shift is identified with a phase displacement of a wave. The shift is estimated on the basis of wave observations and without any knowledge where such displacement took place. The estimates of the shift that are proposed in the paper are named Shift- M split estimators.
In deformation analyses, it is important to find a stable reference frame and therefore the stability of the possible reference points must be controlled. There are several methods to test such stability. The paper’s objective is to examine one of such methods, namely the method based on application of R-estimation, for its sensitivity to gross errors. The method in question applies three robust estimators, however, it is not robust itself. The robustness of the method depends on the number of unstable points (the fewer unstable points there are, the more robust is the proposed method). Such property makes it important to know how the estimates applied and the strategy itself respond to a gross error. The empirical influence functions (EIF) can provide necessary information and help to understand the response of the strategy for a gross error. The paper presents examples of EIFs of the estimates, their application in the strategy and describes how important and useful is such knowledge in practice.