The subject of the article is the occurrence of dialectal features in Internet nicknames. The analysis was carried out on the basis of about 2500 nicknames that contained dialectal features. The names were obtained within the years 2012–2015. In the analysis, linguistic areas were indicated in which we may notice the influence of local dialects on that layer of the Internet anthroponymy. The influence of local dialects is visible in the fact that the Internet users reach for traditional folk names as well as name models related to the folk manner of identifying a human being, e.g. Jagatka, Jantecek, Janielka od Genowefy, Cesiek z Tuchowa. Apart from references to folk anthroponymy, the Internet nicknames reflect the influence of local dialect lexis (e.g. gzub, graślok, fusyt), phonetics (janioł, Carownica, łokrutny łoptymista), inflection (Śpisok z Łapsóf, ciupaga łod tater) and word-formation, e.g. (rzemyszek, cwaniuk).
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the distinguished properties of by-names as forms different from official ones, to analyze their structural and semantic features and to search for their historical evidence. By-names of Chinese places should not be defined as unusual and informal, since actually in many cases by-names are formal and very common in China nowadays. By-names are generally bestowed on important places (mostly cities) that win the public interest. Most of them have two structural parts, the front specific parts are determiners / qualifiers and the back ones are generics. The generics generally are: cheng 城 ‘town / city’, du 都 ‘capital’, jiang 江 ‘river’, shan 山 ‘mountain’, dao 岛 ‘island’ etc. The lexical meanings of lexical items forming specific parts of by-names mainly refer to animals, plants, minerals, local manufactured products, climate and natural scenery, geographical location, humans, areas, etc. Chinese contemporary by-names, used on various occasions, vary in frequency and stability. The by-names discussed in the paper only account for a small proportion and are listed just due to their relatively high frequency, stability and acceptability.
The paper discusses the method of the substitution by homophones that is extensively used in many fields in China, among others onomastics, such as toponymy or anthroponymy. The Chinese language has always contained a considerable number of homophones, i.e. words pronounced alike but spelt/written differently and having different meanings. The situation resulted from two main factors: the nature of the Chinese language and the sound changes to spoken Chinese language, i.e. a strong tendency to sound simplification. The method of the substitution by homophones is mainly aimed at reshaping already existing names by replacing their previous form, for some reasons unwanted. However, it is also broadly applied to create new names by using words which are homophonic with the words denoting the idea they symbolize. The paper presents some various reasons and aims of the use of the method in the domain of Chinese geographical names, and the more detailed analysis of its use in the changing of old street (hutong) names after 1949 in Beijing. The research material consists of 1,159 hutong names, and the names changed by the use of the method accounts for 23.5% of the total.
In light of the publication of the last volume of the onomasticon “Polish Anthroponymy of 16th–18th Century”, the authors reflect on the inspiration for the dictionary. They highlight the role of Professor Aleksandra Cieślikowa in shaping the concept of the volume and present stages of its creation and publication, as well as indicating the importance of describing anthroponymic phenomena in a historical and sociocultural context. The authors discuss the structure of each entry and of the whole dictionary and the sources used. The uniqueness of the onomasticon, owing to the variety of textual data referred to in the dictionary, is emphasised. The authors believe that “Polish Anthroponymy” may be a good starting point for further syntheses for other researchers.
The article focuses on the translation of non-literary Chinese proper names, a subject which to date has not enjoyed much research interest as a result of the common belief that proper names are untranslatable. The article discusses techniques used in the translation of Chinese anthroponyms, toponyms and brand names into Polish and English. The author refers to the strategies used in the process of transferring names to the target language and presents the consequences of applying given techniques from the cognitive perspective, which entails analysing the names in terms of their structure and meaning. Particular attention is paid to the connotations of the names, the impact they have on the speakers of a given language, as well as the mental images that can be derived from their structure. In the contrastive analysis of the names of tourist locations in Beijing and their Polish and English equivalents, the author applies the cognitive grammar approach as developed by Ronald W. Langacker. The image schemas of the names are used to present the distinct conceptualizations embodied in the names with the same references in diff erent languages. One of the chapters describes how European names are adapted into Chinese. The study also provides an overview of the characteristics of the Chinese onomasticon, a factor which makes translation from Chinese to European languages particularly complicated. The observations made in the course of the analysis permit conclusions to be drawn on the linguistic worldview created by Polish, Chinese and English propria.
Geographical names are extremely helpful in giving evidence of early settlements and their inhabitants due to their solid anchorage in the landscape, even in the case of population changes. Through the investigation of these place names, information can be gathered not only on the name giver, but also on the settlers who took on the names later on. Therefore, it is considered that any linguistic investigation has to start from the river and place names of a region. The utilization of geographical names yields the following findings: — The centre of Old Slavic names is situated on the northern slope of the Carpathian Mountains, approximately between Bukovina and Krakow; it is based on a substrate of older, Indo-European hydronyms. — The expansion of the East Slavic tribes bypasses the Pripyat Marshes and extends further through Central Russia and especially to the North and the East. — West Slavic settlers reach their new settlement areas through migration from Bohemia and further on to Saxonia and Thuringia, and also through Western Poland to Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. — The migration of the South Slavs takes place in two big, yet separate flows, on the one hand through the Moravian Gate to Slovenia, Hungary and Croatia, and on the other hand on the Eastern edge of the Carpathian Mountains to Serbia and Bulgaria.
The aim of the article is to present selected Slavic compound names, including first names reconstructed from toponyms, which are the basis of the oldest place names (i.e. recorded in the Medieval documents). The paper announces a broader research project which aims to present an overall perspective of the anthroponymic motivation of geographical names from onomastic-linguistic, historical, demographic-migratory, geographical and frequency-based aspects. This study will focus upon a variety of topics, such as: chronology, frequency, geography of the name-based toponyms, their onomastic variants and morphological structure. Moreover, the following issues will be indicated: resources and the spread of the naming structures, the survivability and productivity of certain name groups in the toponymic nomination process. Cultural, ideological, religious and social causes which favor the production of certain types of names, including compound names, will be indicated.
The paper presents the long-term project “Online Dictionary of Surnames in Germany” (“Digitales Familiennamenwörterbuch, DFD”), its conception, main objectives, and its technical realisation. By means of representative examples, the paper depicts how the project works along the categories of conflation, validation, specification or revision of etymologies so far proposed in standard references and the development of new ones. Exploiting new digital resources — especially with the help of new findings in surname geography, the surname stock can be captured and analysed all-encompassing and systematically. Surnames of foreign origin like English, French, Italian, Slavic, Baltic or Turkish are also considered. The importance of Slavic roots in German surnames is exemplified by the name Novak (‛new settler’) which ranks position 156 in the total frequency of German surnames. The article’s outlook discusses the importance and possibilities for future cooperation with surname projects in other countries like Poland, with a long-term perspective for a European network of surname dictionaries.
This study is based on the manuscript of the doctoral dissertation “Hydronymy of the Ostravice River Basin”, which takes as its thematic and methodological starting-point a project by Slovak linguists entitled “Hydronymia Slovaciae”; this project aims to produce a complete description of Slovak hydronymy applying consistent methodology, and it forms part of the European “Hydronymia Europaea” project. Although Czech toponomastics has not yet officially joined this project (or declared an intention to join it), research in Czech hydronymy and hydronomastics nevertheless has a long tradition. This study offers a critical commented overview of Czech hydronomastic literature from the earliest attempts (naive texts or folk etymologies), through 19th-century studies, to more recent research which seeks to understand hydronyms in their broader context, especially in terms of their communicative functions. The study also mentions important (mainly historical) cartographic sources recording Czech hydronyms. One of the appendices to the above-mentioned dissertation is a complete bibliography of studies, articles, Master’s theses and other publications that are in some way relevant to Czech hydronymy.
The authors discuss the main premises of the project “The most popular surnames in Poland — past and present. E-dictionary” which has been in development since July 2014 in IJP PAN in Krakow. They also present its basic aims and functions, progress already made and they compare it with other dictionaries of surnames. The authors describe several aspects of the dictionary related to IT and computers but also those concerned with onomastics and lexicography. Additionally, they pay particular attention to the information contained in specific parts of each entry.
The article is devoted to more comprehensive use of medieval onymic resources in research on the history of the Polish language. These materials were used in research on the phonetic development of the Polish language in its earliest period. To date, they have rarely appeared in lexical studies. The body of the oldest appellatives, reconstructed on the basis of proper names, would be a kind of lexicon (supplement) enriching and verifying old Polish lexical material, certifi ed in historical Polish dictionaries (also in etymological dictionaries). In this way, the expectations formulated over 100 years ago by eminent Polish linguists may be fulfi lled. The complementary use of such a huge wealth of material opens up further research perspectives towards etymological, dialectological, lexical and morphological research.
This article deals with the name of the town Węgrów on the river Liwiec, whose name is based on the obscure hydronym Węgra Potok. This name is juxtaposed with another place name, Węgra, which is found near Przasnysz and is named after the river Węgra (today known as Węgierka), as well as other names beginning with wągr-||węgr-. The author challenges Witczak’s (2015) hypothesis that the name of Węgra comes from the Sudovian (Jatvingian, Yotvingian) language. The article raises historical, archaeological and geographical arguments that oppose the possibility of a Yotvingian influence in these regions. Consequently, the author contends that the place names have a Slavonic root, linked to the noun węgorz (a type of fish), or the meandering nature of both rivers. There is also a discussion of the name patok||potok (stream/brook).
Polish microtoponyms, as they were used in the middle 20th century, are known today mainly thanks to a field names-gathering action probably initiated in 1954 and finished as late as in 1970, carried out by Polish linguists from Krakow, Warsaw, Łódź, Wrocław, Toruń, Lublin and Poznań. The present paper tries to reconstruct its process and the fate of the collected materials, which served as the basis for the incomplete series “Official names of localities and physiographical objects” published in 142 county fascicles between 1963 and 1975. While part of them have been saved and are being published on a digital platform, a lot of information has been irretrievably lost due to the carelessness of its depositaries.
This study is focused on scholarship on proper names within a sociolinguistic framework. The main aim of this study is to clarify the term socio-onomastics and its meaning and usage with regards to toponomastics. Special attention is paid to the genesis of socio-onomastics and to the relations between sociolinguistics, onomastics and socio-onomastics. The influence of social aspects on the act of naming and on the entire existence of names is also taken into consideration when discussing the use of socio-onomastics. The text discusses views and attitudes towards the topic presented in linguistic literature. The socio-onomastic aspects are predominantly studied in scholarship on personal names, e.g. name creation and choice. In the case of place names, they are studied more rarely and the research pays attention mostly to the usage of place names in communication. Available toponomastic and anthroponomastic works using the term socio-onomastics in their description have been analyzed, as well as theoretical onomastic literature, producing several findings of differences in the usage of this term. The main topics of socio-antroponomastic literature are anthroponymy of various social groups, social aspects of name choice, social aspects of the development of naming systems, popularity of names, nicknames, hypocorisms and slang naming. The socio-toponomastic works mainly deal with the toponymy of various social groups, toponymic competence (knowledge and usage of toponyms), non-standardized toponyms, slang toponyms, social-based toponyms (commemorative toponyms), social-based renaming, and the linguistic landscape.