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Abstrakt

An accumulation of glacial sediments is located near Písečná village in the depression between the Sokol Ridge and Zlaté Hory Highlands NNE of Jeseník town (Eastern Sudetes). The accumulation lies at the lateral side of the mountain valley of the Bělá River and fills a preglacial palaeovalley of this river. Research combining facies analysis of outcrops, ground penetrating radar survey, interpretation drilling survey, and modelling of the preglacial relief was undertaken at the site. According to the results obtained, the upper part of the sedimentary accumulation represents a coarse-grained terminoglacial glaciofluvial delta of the Gilbert type. The development of the accumulation has dominantly been driven by the preglacial morphology. Facies typical for foresets of coarse-grained deltas represented mainly by high-density flows, cohesionless debris flows, debris falls and less common low-density flows were found in the outcrops. The delta near Písečná prograded into a lake dammed by the ice-sheet front in the north. The lake was bounded by the slopes of Sokol Ridge, Zlaté Hory Highlands and Góry Parkowe on other sides. The lake level reached an altitude of up to 430 m a.s.l., as the coarse-grained delta plain base lies at this level.
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This malacological analysis was conducted at a site with peat and calcareous tufas in Łapsze Niżne, Podhale (southern Poland). The study was carried out in 6 main and several complementary sections, in which 37 mollusc species were recognized represented by almost 11 000 specimens. The study enabled the reconstruction of environmental changes during the accumulation of the Holocene deposits (from the Boreal Phase till present). Conclusions drawn from these reconstructions were compared with results of malacological and palynological studies from other sites in Podhale. As a result, regional environmental reconstructions for the Holocene of the area were made. The specific composition, ecological structure and succession of molluscan assemblages from Łapsze Niżne indicate a significant role for local factors, thus demonstrating the variability of environmental conditions within a geographic region.
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Abstrakt

The Upper Greensand Formation, mostly capped by the Chalk, crops out on the edges of a broad, dissected plateau in Devon, west Dorset and south Somerset and has an almost continuous outcrop that runs from the Isle of Purbeck to the Vale of Wardour in south Wiltshire. The Formation is well exposed in cliffs in east Devon and the Isle of Purbeck, but is poorly exposed inland. It comprises sandstones and calcarenites with laterally and stratigraphically variable amounts of carbonate cement, glauconite and chert. The sedimentology and palaeon- tology indicate deposition in marginal marine-shelf environments that were at times subject to strong tidal and wave-generated currents. The formation of the Upper Greensand successions in the region was influenced by penecontemporaneous movements on major fault zones, some of which are sited over E-W trending Variscan thrusts in the basement rocks and, locally, on minor faults. Comparison of the principal sedimentary breaks in the succession with the sequence boundaries derived from world-wide sea-level curves suggests that local tec- tonic events mask the effects of any eustatic changes in sea level. The preserved fauna is unevenly distributed, both laterally and stratigraphically. Bivalves, gastropods and echinoids are common at some horizons but are not age-diagnostic. Ammonites are common at a few stratigraphically narrowly defined horizons, but are rare or absent throughout most of the succession. As a result, the age of parts of the succession is still poorly known
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Abstrakt

The Telbesmi Formation, at the northern margin of the Arabian Plate, Turkey, is composed of alternating darkbrown, pinky-brown fluvial arkosic sandstone/mudstones with thin-bedded cherty limestones and channel conglomerates. The formation contains rare and poorly diversified trace fossils. The siltstone/sandstone beds of levels 1 and 2 of the formation yielded, however, a moderately diverse assemblage composed of: Cochlichnus isp., Palaeophycus isp., Planolites beverleyensis, Teichichnus isp. and ?Treptichnus rectangularis. This assemblage, made up of traces left by deposit feeding organisms, represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies. Treptichnus rectangularis and Palaeophycus isp., of the assemblage, can be considered markers for the base of the Cambrian in southeast Turkey.
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Abstrakt

The long-ranging Early to Middle Triassic coniform conodont form-genus Cornudina Hirschmann occurs abundantly in the Anisian of NW Turkey, Northern Tethys. Although suggested to represent the P1 element of an apparatus of the Order Ozarkodinida Dzik, questions concerning the apparatus of Cornudina remain. A description of the probable phylogenetic trends in the P1 elements of Cornudina is attempted and the role of the form-genera Ketinella Gedik and Kamuellerella Gedik, as the alternative ramiform skeletal elements in the Cornudina multi-element apparatus, is investigated. The newly described, Gedikella quadrata gen. nov., sp. nov., is an S element, Kamuellerella rectangularis sp. nov., is either an S3 or an S4 element, and Ketinella goermueshi sp. nov., is an M element.
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Abstrakt

Early Palaeocene through early Eocene silicoflagellate assemblages were examined from five southern subtropical through subpolar deep-sea sites: DSDP Holes 208 and 524, and ODP Holes 700B, 752A, and 1121B. For each site, the taxonomic composition of the silicoflagellate assemblage is documented in detail; Pseudonaviculopsis gen. nov., Dictyocha castellum sp. nov. and Stephanocha? fulbrightii sp. nov. are proposed, along with several new combinations. More importantly, however, these observations enable a considerable refinement to the existing Palaeocene–Eocene silicoflagellate biostratigraphic zonation that for the first time uses datums calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale. The Corbisema aspera Interval Zone occurs immediately above the K/Pg boundary and is here described from Seymour Island. The Corbisema hastata Partial Range Zone extends from near the K/Pg boundary to late early Palaeocene and has been observed in Hole 208. The Pseudonaviculopsis disymmetrica Acme Zone occurs in Holes 208 and 700B. The Dictyocha precarentis Partial Range Zone, observed in Holes 208, 700B, 752A and 1121B, is subdivided into D. precarentis, Naviculopsis primativa, N. cruciata and Pseudonaviculopsis constricta subzones. The Naviculopsis constricta Partial Range Zone occurs in Holes 524, 700B, 752A and 1121B. This study is also the first to consider syn- and/or diachroneity in Palaeogene silicoflagellate biostratigraphy.
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Abstrakt

The S-7 borehole log from the Sumina area (USCB Poland) revealed the presence of three basaltic veins originating from a basalt dyke. Coal interlayers in the rocks surrounding the basaltic veins have been coked to form natural coke. Photometric measurements revealed that the optical properties of the studied natural coke samples are characteristic of semi-graphite (Rmax > 9%). The natural coke matrix of all of the analyzed samples has a biaxial negative optical character. Vitrinite in the examined natural coke samples is characterized by a lower optical anisotropy than that of the natural matrix and it has a biaxial positive optical character. Vitrinite in almost all samples taken at locations more distant from the intrusion has a biaxial positive optical character. A reversal of the changes of the true maximum vitrinite reflectance and bireflectance with changing distance from the second basaltic vein has been observed. The temperature regime that acted upon the dispersed organic matter located in the immediate vicinity of the intrusion, estimated on the basis of the selected experimental data, is suggested to be higher than 750 °C.
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Abstrakt

The Maastrichtian sediments of northern Iraq are rich in larger benthic foraminifera. Among them, the genus Loftusia is well-known one because of its significant palaeogeographic distribution across the Mediterranean and Middle East. In this study, observations of abnormal test shapes, species recognition criteria and endoskeleton characteristics of Loftusia are discussed, based on the new material from north-eastern Iraq. The following species of Loftusia are described: Loftusia elongata Cox, L. persica Brady, Loftusia morgani Douvillé, L. anatolica Meriç, L. matsumarui Meriç and Görmüs, L. minor B Cox, L. ketini B Meriç and L. kahtaensis Meriç, Loftusia minor A Cox, L. oktayi Meriç and L. baykali Meriç. The predominant species are Loftusia elongata, L. morgani and L. baykali. Skewed abnormal individuals and epidermal parts of the endoskeleton structure are also interesting aspects to note. Quantitative data obtained for Loftusia allow us to better understand and interpret species identification criteria, abnormal occurrences and the endoskeleton structure.
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Abstrakt

The Indian Cave Sandstone (Upper Pennsylvanian, Gzhelian) from the area of Peru, Nebraska, USA, has yielded numerous isolated chondrichthyan remains and among them teeth and dermal denticles of the Symmoriiformes Zangerl, 1981. Two tooth-based taxa were identified: a falcatid Denaea saltsmani Ginter and Hansen, 2010, and a new species of Stethacanthus Newberry, 1889, S. concavus sp. nov. In addition, there occur a few long, monocuspid tooth-like denticles, similar to those observed in Cobelodus Zangerl, 1973, probably representing the head cover or the spine-brush complex. A review of the available information on the fossil record of Symmoriiformes has revealed that the group existed from the Late Devonian (Famennian) till the end of the Middle Permian (Capitanian).
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Abstrakt

The Cleveland Shale fauna represents a unique view of the time after a major Devonian extinction event (Frasnian–Famenian) with the recovery of arthrodires (Placodermi) best represented by this most specious North American fauna. This time was followed by an additional event (Hangenberg Biocrisis) leading to the extinction of arthrodires (and all other placoderms). An understanding of the diversity and interrelationships of North American arthrodires can aid our understanding of this critical time in vertebrate evolution. A new aspinothoracid arthrodire Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Late Devonian of northern Ohio, U.S.A., which adds to our knowledge of this group. It provides a point of comparison to other members of the fauna whose interrelationships are poorly known. A phylogenetic analysis supports an assignment of Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. among the aspinothoracid arthrodires. This work has drawn attention to the continued need for descriptive and phylogenetic analyses of this unique fauna. Decades old species descriptions need revision along with preparation and description of new taxa. The work on Hlavinichthys jacksoni gen. et sp. nov. here is one step in that process.
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Abstrakt

Six enigmatic fossils from the Famennian (Devonian) Cleveland Shale in Ohio, U.S.A., are interpreted here as arthrodiran (Placodermi) egg cases. Recognition as egg cases is confirmed based on the observation of layered collagen fibers. The presence of a tuberculated bone fragment preserved within one case confirms a vertebrate source. The nature of the tubercles and the unique morphology of the egg cases supports the interpretation of an arthrodiran source. Reports of Devonian egg cases are limited to either assumed chondrichthyan producers or a putative ‘egg sac’ with a morphology atypical for any vertebrate. The Cleveland Shale egg cases thus represent the first record for a non-chondrichthyan producer. Among placoderms, behaviors of a pelagic life style with obligate nesting sites, reef fishes with live birth, and estuarine and fluvial nurseries, along with eggcase oviparity testifies to the diversity of reproductive strategies. As with modern fishes these strategies may be ecologically driven and the derived and variable reproductive biology of extant chondrichthyans is actually a primitive condition among gnathostomes. One consequence of the diversity of reproductive strategies (dependent on the topology of relationships) is the independent origin of internal fertilization within placoderms, possibly suggesting external fertilization as the primitive gnathostome reproductive mode.
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Abstrakt

Ischnacanthus gracilis (Egerton, 1861), the only ischnacanthiform acanthodian from the Lochkovian Lower Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, is known from hundreds of specimens in institutional collections worldwide. Despite this relative abundance, morphology and histology of its skeletal elements have rarely been investigated. Surface details of spines, dental elements, and scales are often not visible in specimens because they are usually split through the middle. We have examined a broad size range of fish, from 35 mm to 250 mm long. Several intact (not split) specimens have been collected in recent years and acid-prepared to show fine details of the dermal and dental elements. We have also used scanning electron microscopy of scales, jaws and dental elements, denticles and fin spines, and serial thin sectioning of articulated specimens, to document their structure. Some of our notable observations include: identification of ventral lateral lines, double-layered subtessellate calcified cartilage forming the jaws, and the probable occurrence of extraoral tricuspid denticles on the jaws of most fish. Examination of the size range, body proportions and dentition of institutional specimens gives no support for recognising more than one species in the Midland Valley localities.
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Abstrakt

Campyloprion Eastman, 1902 is a chondrichthyan having an arched symphyseal tooth whorl similar to that of Helicoprion Karpinsky, 1899, but less tightly coiled. The holotype of Campyloprion annectans Eastman, 1902, the type species of Campyloprion, is of unknown provenance, but is presumed to be from the Pennsylvanian of North America. Campyloprion ivanovi (Karpinsky, 1922) has been described from the Gzhelian of Russia. A partial symphyseal tooth whorl, designated as Campyloprion cf. C. ivanovi, is reported from the Missourian Tinajas Member of the Atrasado Formation of Socorro County, New Mexico, USA. Partial tooth whorls from the Virgilian Finis Shale and Jacksboro Limestone Members of the Graham Formation of northern Texas, USA, are designated as Campyloprion sp. Two partial tooth whorls from the Gzhelian of Russia that were previously referred to C. ivanovi are designated as Campyloprion cf. C. annectans. The age of Toxoprion lecontei (Dean, 1898), from Nevada, USA, is corrected from the Carboniferous to the early Permian. An alternative interpretation of the holotype of T. lecontei is presented, resulting in a reversal of its anterior-to-posterior orientation. The genera Helicoprion, Campyloprion, and Shaktauites Tchuvashov, 2001 can be distinguished by their different spiral angles.
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Abstrakt

An unusual 6–8 cm layer of prismatic cartilage and matrix containing some 8,800 teeth, coprolites, incomplete occipital spines, and denticles of Orthacanthus platypternus (Cope, 1883) occurs in the lower Permian (Artinskian) Craddock Bonebed in Texas, USA. It is the only species of shark present in the Clear Fork Group except for three worn Xenacanthus Beyrich, 1848 occipital spine fragments and two teeth of ?Lissodus (Polyacrodus) zideki (Johnson, 1981) (Hybodontoidei), both being the first occurrences in this unit. Analysis of measurements of teeth with complete bases randomly selected from 3,050 initially available teeth failed to reveal the presence of sexual dimorphism or the discrete presence of juveniles as expected, based on an independent study which identified the presence of Orthacanthus juvenile occipital spines. A few highly symmetrical small teeth are present, which had not been previously observed in the Texas lower Permian. They may be symphyseals and restricted only to juveniles. Other unusual teeth include germinal teeth and deformed teeth, both of which occur in the Clear Fork and underlying Wichita groups. One tooth displays an apparent example of the equivalent of an “enamel pearl” on one of its cusps. The most unusual teeth are those that appear to have undergone various stages of resorption. Only the lingual margin of the base is affected in which the apical button is resorbed to varying degrees until only the labial margin with the basal tubercle and the three cusps are all that remain. If the teeth were undergoing resorption, then the perplexing problem is why the apical button is resorbed and not the superjacent basal tubercle. Other vertebrate remains include palaeoniscoid scales and teeth and unidentified tetrapod bone fragments, jaw fragments, and teeth. Rare fragments of bones (scales?) bear a “comb edge” which have not been previously observed in the Texas lower Permian.
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Abstrakt

Newly collected and restudied earlier materials on an enigmatic fish Ventalepis ketleriensis Schultze, 1980 from the upper Famennian (postera – ? Lower expansa conodont zones) of Latvia and central and northwestern Russia support its porolepiform affinities. A new family Ventalepididae fam. nova is established for this genus upon a peculiar combination of characters, including scale structure and dermal bones ornamentation. New records extend the distribution of this genus and the Ventalepis vertebrate assemblage on the whole to a vast geographical zone along the south-eastern coast of the Old Red Sandstone continent. The habitat area of the Devonian vertebrate assemblage over such a large territory within the zoogeographical province of Baltica is established for the first time. Palaeozoogeographical analysis suggests Laurentian affinities of the Ventalepis assemblage demonstrating the major congruency to the Belgian and East Greenland ones. These and Russian localities are separated by a vast ORS continent. Presence of the dipnoan Jarvikia in all three locations, as well as an Ichthyostega-like tetrapod in the Belgian one reveals palaeozoogeographical connections, which might reflect possible dwelling not only in the near-shore continent periphery but also in the river systems of the continent itself.
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The Silurian fishes from north-western Hunan, China are characterised by the earliest known galeaspids Dayongaspis Pan and Zeng, 1985 and Konoceraspis Pan, 1992, and the earliest known antiarch Shimenolepis Wang J.-Q., 1991, as well as rich sinacanth fin spines. Shimenolepis from Lixian County in north-western Hunan, which was dated as the Telychian (late Llandovery), has long been regarded as the oldest representative of the placoderms in the world. As such, in addition to eastern Yunnan and the Lower Yangtze Region, north-western Hunan represents another important area in South China that yields important fossil material for the research of early vertebrates and related stratigraphy. Here we summarise the Silurian fishes known in north-western Hunan so far, and classify them into three vertebrate assemblages (i.e., the Wentang, Maoshan, and Yangtze assemblages). Based on the updated Silurian vertebrate and stratigraphic databases, the Silurian fish-bearing strata in north-western Hunan can be subdivided into the Rongxi, Huixingshao, and Xiaoxi formations in ascending chronological order, which can be correlated with the Lower Red Beds, the Upper Red Beds, and the Ludlow Red Beds in South China, respectively. A new look at the Silurian strata in Lixian suggests that the age of Shimenolepis is late Ludlow rather than late Llandovery as previously suggested. The research on Silurian fishes and biostratigraphy in north-western Hunan not only provides morphological data of early vertebrates, but also offers new palaeoichthyological evidence for the subdivision, correlation, and age assignment of the Silurian marine red beds in South China. The establishment of a related high-precision Silurian stratigraphic framework in north-western Hunan will help to elucidate the temporal and spatial distribution of Silurian fossil fishes, deepen the understanding of the evolution of early vertebrates, and unravel the coevolution between Silurian vertebrates and the palaeoenvironment.
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Abstrakt

Sparse fish microremains have been found in marine limestones from the Middle Devonian (Givetian) Skały Formation (Sitka Coral-Crinoid Limestone Member and Sierżawy Member), Świętomarz–Śniadka section, Bodzentyn Syncline, Łysogóry Region, northern Holy Cross Mountains, associated with conodonts of the hemiansatus to ansatus zones. Thelodont scales referred here to Australolepis sp. cf. A. seddoni come from near Śniadka village, from samples dated as hemiansatus to rhenanus/varcus zones. This increases the known range for the genus from its original find in Western Australia. The presence of a thelodont in the late Middle Devonian in Poland extends the known distribution of turiniids around the peri-Gondwana shorelines of Palaeotethys.
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Here we use synchrotron tomography to characterise dental vasculature in the oldest known tooth-bearing sharks, Leonodus carlsi Mader, 1986 and Celtiberina maderi Wang, 1993. Three dimensional reconstruction of the vascular system and microstructure of both taxa revealed a complex and dense network of canals, including horizontal, ascending and secondary bifurcated canals, as well as histological features consistent with an osteodont histotype. However, L. carlsi and C. maderi also exhibit significant morphological differences, showing Leonodus a typical diplodont tooth morphology with a linguo-labially elongated base, that contrast with Celtiberina’s teeth that show a single conical cusp curved lingually with a week developed flat base mesio- distally extended, perhaps reflecting distant relationship. These data are compatible with a pre-Devonian diversification of the two main tooth types traditionally recognised in Palaeozoic sharks (i.e., “cladodont” vs “diplodont”). Finally, our data demonstrate that existing dental classification schemes based on styles of vascularisation are over-simplified, especially when Palaeozoic taxa are considered.
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Abstrakt

The Lower Devonian ‘Placoderm Sandstone’ in the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) is filled with abundant impressions of disarticulated vertebrate remains. The only acanthodian macroremains named to date are fin spines of Machaeracanthus polonicus Gürich. Fin spine impressions in slabs from the Winna Formation (Emsian) at Podłazie Hill (near Daleszyce) in the southern HCM, and also the Barcza Formation (?Lochkovian) at Barcza Quarry, Miedziana Góra Conglomerate (?Lochkovian), Gruchawka, and Zagórze Formation (middle–upper Emsian) at Bukowa Mountain in the northern HCM, reposited in the University of Warsaw, Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute, Warsaw, and Natural History Museum, London collections, have been cast and studied in order to better document this poorly known taxon. As noted in other Machaeracanthus species, we have found that M. polonicus has two different morphotypes of spines, which abut lengthwise to form a pair of spines. Our investigations show that the fin spine assemblage includes Onchus overathensis as well as M. polonicus, and probably another undetermined acanthodian. The affinities of O. overathensis are reassessed. It is here considered to be a diplacanthiform, and reassigned to the genus Striacanthus, as S. overathensis. Acanthodian scapulocoracoids have also been identified, as well as tightly spiralled toothwhorls which could be from an acanthodian.
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Fourteen symposia on early/lower vertebrates have taken place over the last 50 years, usually at about four year intervals. An average 60 participants have taken part at these symposia, with over one hundred occasionally. The results of the symposia have been published in proceedings. The symposia started honoring E. A:son Stensiö and E. Jarvik. Honors were taken up at the 11th symposium in Uppsala again. Since the 13th symposium a Stensiö award is also given to young researchers in the field.
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Abstrakt

Placoid and polyodontode scales of stem chondrichthyans have been found in the early Lochkovian “Ditton Group” of the Brown Clee Hill district, Shropshire, England and at Talgarth, south Wales. One of the forms is assigned to a new species of Altholepis Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1997, a genus already recognised from Lochkovian shallow marine deposits in Celtiberia, Spain and the Northwest Territories, Canada as well as the type locality in Podolia, Ukraine. Altholepis salopensis sp. nov. is based on small polyodontode scales with typically three to eight high odontodes; the scale form was previously considered to belong to acanthodian “Nostolepis” robusta (Brotzen, 1934). The structure of other scales formerly assigned to “Nostolepis” robusta has led us to erect a new genus Jolepis for this scale form, which differs from Altholepis in lacking an ordered layout of odontodes. Jolepis robusta (Brotzen, 1934), originally (and possibly still) considered to be an acanthodian, is also known from the Baltic countries, Russia, and northern Germany (ex erratic limestones). Scales of acanthodian Parexus recurvus Agassiz, 1845, and/or possibly from the stem chondrichthyan Seretolepis elegans Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 (scales of these two taxa are barely distinguishable), and of stem chondrichthyan Polymerolepis whitei Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 are also present. Altholepis, Jolepis gen. nov., Seretolepis Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 and Polymerolepis Karatajūtė- Talimaa, 1968 are found in marine deposits elsewhere; the British occurrence of these taxa adds to the debate on the sedimentological origins of the Lower Old Red Sandstone deposits in the Welsh Borderland. The geographic range of several early sharks is now known to extend around the Old Red Sandstone continent and beyond.
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Material of tesseraspids (Tesseraspidiformes) is reported from the uppermost Severnaya Zemlya Formation (Lochkovian, Lower Devonian) of the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, in the Russian Arctic, where it is associated with other vertebrate remains, including corvaspids, acanthodians, and large but rare specimens of osteostracans. The tesseraspid material is not abundant, and most often preserved as a “patchwork” of bony platelets (tesserae), except for a few partly articulated specimens. We redescribe the holotype of Tesseraspis mosaica Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1983, whose head carapace is preserved as a flattened tube of adjacent tesserae. This material is compared to the already published tesseraspid taxa, i.e., T. tessellata Wills, 1935, T. toombsi Tarlo, 1964, T. mutabilis (Brotzen, 1934), T. oervigi Tarlo, 1964 emend. Dineley and Loeffler, 1976, T. denisoni Tarlo, 1964, and T. talimaae Tarlo, 1965. All species are based upon rare and incomplete material, as no head carapaces associated with trunk and tail are known, and so, the intraspecific variability is also unknown. Distinction between “species” is based on the detail of the superficial sculpture of the tesserae of the head carapaces, which is unsatisfactory. It is concluded that only four of the nominal species can be retained. A review of all other known tessellated pteraspidomorphs indicates that our knowledge of tessellated heterostracans is currently insufficient to support a meaningful classification.
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