Diagenetic carbonate deposits (concretions, cementation bodies and cementstone bands) commonly occur in organic carbon-rich sequence of the Agardhfjellet Formation (Upper Jurassic) in Spitsbergen . They are dominated by dolomite/ankerite and siderite. These deposits originated as a result of displacive cementation of host sediment in a range of post-depositional environments, from shallow subsurface to deep-burial ones. Preliminary results of the carbon and oxygen isotopic survey of these deposits in southern Spitsbergen (Lĺgkollane, Ingebrigtsenbukta, Reinodden, and Lidfjellet sections) show the δ13C values ranging between –13.0‰ and –1.8‰ VPDB, and the δ18O values between –16.0‰ and –7.7‰ VPDB. These results suggest that the major stage of formation of the carbonate deposits occurred during burial diagenesis under increased temperature, most probably in late diagenetic to early catagenic environments. Carbonate carbon for mineral precipitation was derived from dissolution of skeletal carbonate and from thermal decomposition of organic matter.
The occurrence of coreless winters in the South Shetland Islands region is related to increase in the intensity of cyclonic circulation and to the presence of massive and rapid advection of warm air northerly and westerly. Coreless winter developments depend on large-scale oceanic processes – the presence of positive anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Bellingshausen Sea over the range 080°–092°W and the retreat of sea ice extent southwards. When negative anomalies of SST in the same region are observed and the sea ice extent advances northwards, a winter with clearly marked cold core is experienced at the Arctowski Station on the South Shetlands.
Ninety eight polychaete species were found in the shallow sublittoral of Admiralty Bay. The most abundant were Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis, Tauberia gracilis, Ophelina syringopyge, Rhodine intermedia, Tharyx cincinnatus, Aricidea (Acesta) strelzovi, Apistobranchus sp., Cirrophorus brevicirratus and Microspio moorei. Mean abundance of polychaetes was estimated at 120 ind./ 0.1m2. As a result of cluster analysis several polychaete assemblages were distinguished. The highly specific assemblage with two characteristic species, Scoloplos marginatus and Travisia kerguelensis, from shallow areas with sandy bottom situated far from glaciers; a distincly specific assemblage with Apistobranchus sp. from poorly sorted sediments in the bottom areas situated on the slopes at the base of steep rubble shores; the richest and most diverse, highly specific polychaete assemblage from the central basin of the bay with Tauberia gracilis as the most characteristic species, as well as two assemblages from the bottom areas neighbouring glaciers and influenced by the intensive enrichment of very small grain-sized sediments with Ophelina cylindricaudata and Tharyx cincinnatus. Clear assemblages’ arrangement was observed along the gradient: sand, silty sand, silt towards clay silt. Other important factors, supporting the proposed classification of assemblages and their character, include the sorting coefficient of the sediment (So) as well as the slope of the bottom. The between-habitat diversity of polychaete fauna is strongly connected with the phenomena occurring in the neighbouring terrestrial coastal areas.
The area of NW Wedel Jarlsberg Land south of Bellsund (Spitsbergen), between Dunderbukta in the west and the Berzeliustinden mountain group in the east, consists of five fault-bounded blocks: (1) the Renardbreen Block (Middle–Late Proterozoic basement rocks), (2) the Chamberlindalen Block (Late Proterozoic basement rocks), (3) the Martinfjella Block (Late Proterozoic through Early Ordovician basement rocks), (4) the Berzeliustinden Block (Late Proterozoic and Early Ordovician basement rocks covered by Late Palaeozoic–Tertiary platform deposits), (5) the Reinodden Block (Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks). The paper presents an outline of lithostratigraphy (Middle/Upper Proterozoic–Lower Ordovician: Hecla Hoek Succession) and architecture of the Caledonian basement in which several thrust-sheets and thrust-folds have been recognized. It also discusses some aspects of Tertiary overthrusting, faulting and rotation with affected the basement rocks and remodelled its Caledonian architecture.
On the basis of the distinctly biplicate and carinate leaves in the distal portion Grimmia lawiana J.H. Willis, the only continental Antarctic endemic moss species, is transferred to the genus Coscinodon Spreng. and the new combination C. lawianus (J.H. Willis) Ochyra is proposed. The species is described and illustrated, its affinities are discussed and its geographical distribution in the Antarctic is mapped. Grimmia reflexidens Müll. Hal., a southern South American endemic species from Chile , is briefly assessed and this species is also shifted to Coscinodon as C. reflexidens (Müll. Hal.) Ochyra, comb. nov. A key to all species of the genus Coscinodon is presented. Guembelia longirostris (Hook.) Ochyra et Żarnowiec is reported for the first time from the Antarctic on the basis of a specimen collected from the Nordenskjöld Coast on the eastern coast of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Schistidium cupulare (Müll. Hal.) Ochyra, an obscure and poorly known species originally described from Îles Kerguelen as Grimmia cupularis Müll. Hal. and subsequently reported from a single station in the Antarctic, is re-assessed taxonomically. It is considered to be a distinct species of sect. Conferta, closely related to S. amblyophyllum (Müll. Hal.) Ochyra et Hertel, from which it differs in its distal- and mid-leaf areolation of short, isodiametric, quadrate to shortly rectangular cells; stouter costa, 50–75 μm wide in the distal and median part, semi-terete to subrectangular in cross-section and prominently convex on the dorsal surface, (2–)3-stratose above, 3(–4)-stratose below; leaf margins regularly 2–3-stratose in 1–3 rows of cells forming fleshy, bulging limbidia; presence of a distinct central strand; and finely roughened to nearly smooth peristome teeth. S. celatum (Cardot) B.G. Bell from South Georgia and Tierra del Fuego is considered to be conspecific with S. cupulare. Some details of the type specimens of both species are illustrated. The geographical range of S. cupulare is evaluated and it is considered to be an amphiatlantic subantarctic species. A new record of the species from Livingston Island in the Antarctic is provided and a key to species of Schistidium in Antarctica is given.
Nematodes occurring in the Antarctic bony fishes are reviewed, and keys based on morphological features are presented. Five valid species: Ascarophis nototheniae Johnston et Mawson, 1945; Cystidicola beatriceinsleyae (Holloway et Klewer, 1969); Dichelyne fraseri (Baylis, 1929); Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802); Paranisakiopsis weddelliensis Rocka, 2002, and one unnamed form, Capillaria (Procapillaria) sp., have been reported from the Antarctic teleosts. Also, larval anisakids, in the adult stage parasites of marine mammals, birds and fishes, occur commonly in the Antarctic and Subantarctic bony fishes. They belong to Contracaecum spp., Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) and Hysterothylacium aduncum.
The new rich collection of fossil fish remains obtained during the Polish Spitsbergen Expedition of 1998 includes many isolated shark teeth, mostly of the genera Lissodus, Hybodus and Acrodus. The shark microfossils from the Hornsund area (South Spitsbergen) described here and the analysis of the histology of Lissodus teeth contribute to a better understanding of the previously described Early Triassic fish fauna from that region (Birkenmajer and Jerzmańska 1979). There is the evidence for coexistence of two types of histology within a single taxon what closes the discussion considering ortho- and osteodentine as a taxonomic factor.
Palaeomagnetic investigation of the Upper Carboniferous clastic Hyrnefjellet Formation from opposite limbs of the Hyrnefjellet Anticline in southern Spitsbergen (Svalbard Archipelago) uncovered two components of NRM. Direction C1 (D = 224.6°; I = –27.9°; κ = 22.40; α95% = 5.6°) is of prefolding origin and most probably of near-primary origin. High Tb spectra above 575°C indicate hematite as the carrier of C1. Acquisition of the C1 component may be related to an early diagenetic crystallization of hematite, not excluding a detrital origin of the NRM. A paleopole calculated for the C1 component (F = 23.3°N; L= 147.7°E) falls into the Late Devonian–Early Carboniferous sector of APWP for Baltica. This result suggests that Svalbard remained in the present day orientation with respect to Baltica since the Carboniferous time. A second component with intermediate unblocking temperatures, determined in the Hyrnefjellet Formation deposits, is labelled C2. Its mean orientation for in situ position is D = 11.2°; I = 69.2° (κ = 44.05; α95% = 6.3°), thus being similar to Late Mesozoic directions for Baltica. After 100% tectonic correction for tilting of anticline limbs and axis, the C2 component orientation is D = 265.7°; I = 59.7°, thus being distant from any directions for Baltica. Detailed analysis suggest that the C2 component is most probably of synfolding origin, and it was formed during the Tertiary Alpine Tectonic Event.
A sequence of glacial deposits up to 4 m thick unconformably overlies the Eocene La Meseta Formation on the Seymour Island plateau (meseta) and forms a lithostratigraphically distinct unit in the succession of the James Ross Basin, which is formally named here as the Weddell Sea Formation. The formation is thus far known only from Seymour Island. This is a terrestrial melt-out till which contains abundant erratics and also reworked Cretaceous–Tertiary micro- and macrofossils within a silty clay matrix. The terrestrial origin of this till is shown by glacial striations at the base of the unit. The largest erratics (up to 3 m in diameter) are composed of plutonic (granitoids) and metamorphic (gneiss and crystalline schist) rocks of the Antarctic Peninsula provenance. Smaller in size and much more numerous are erratics of volcanic rocks, represented by andesite, basalt and corresponding pyroclastics of the James Ross Island Volcanic Group. Less common are erratics of sedimentary rocks, sometimes bearing fossils derived from the underlying Tertiary and Cretaceous strata. A few erratics from the top of the studied sequence are conglomerates of the Cockburn Island Formation with a foraminifer fauna. These are the youngest clasts within the Weddell Sea Formation. The presence of the Pliocene index fossil Ammoelphidiella antarctica Conato et Segre, 1974 indicates a lower age limit of latest Pliocene or earliest Pleistocene age. The upper age limit of the formation has not been established. An encrusting, unilamellar, colony of the bryozoan Escharella Gray, 1848 has been found on the one of erratics from the Weddell Sea Formation. This is the first fossil record of this genus in Antarctica.
Deep seismic sounding measurements were performed in the continent-ocean transition zone of north-western Spitsbergen , during the expedition ARKTIS XV/2 of the RV Polarstern and the Polish ship Eltanin in 1999. Profile AWI-99200 is 430 km long and runs from the Molloy Deep in the Northern Atlantic to Nordaustlandet in north-eastern Svalbard . Profile AWI-99400 is 360 km long and runs from the Hovgĺrd Ridge to Billefjorden. Seismic energy (airgun and TNT shots) was recorded by land (onshore) seismic stations (REF) and ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and hydrophone systems (OBH). Good quality refracted and reflected P waves were recorded along the two profiles providing an excellent data base for a detailed seismic modelling along the profile tracks. Clear seismic records from airgun shots were obtained up to distances of 200 km at land stations and 50 km at OBSs. TNT explosions were recorded even up to distances of 300 km . A minimum depth of about 6 km of the Moho discontinuity was found east of the Molloy Deep. Here, the upper mantle exhibits P-wave velocity of about 7.9 km/s, and the crustal thickness does not exceed 4 km . The continent–ocean transition zone to the east is characterised by a complex seismic structure. The zone is covered by deep sedimentary basins. The Moho interface dips down to 28 km beneath the continental part of the 99200 profile, and down to 32 km beneath the 99400 profile. The P-wave velocity below the Moho increases up to 8.15 km/s. The continental crust consists of two or three crystalline layers. There is a lowermost crustal continental layer, in the 99400 profile’s model, with the P-wave velocity in order of 7 km/s, which does not exist in the continental crust along the 99200 profile. Additionally, along the 99200 profile, we have found two reflectors in the lower lithosphere at depths of 14–42 and 40–50 km dipping eastward, with P-wave velocity contrasts of about 0.2 km/s. The characteristics of the region bears a shear-rift tectonic setting. The continent–ocean transition zone along the 99200 profile is mostly dominated by extension, so the last stage of the development of the margin can be classified as rifting. The uplifted Moho boundary close to the Molloy Deep can be interpreted as a south-western end of the Molloy Ridge. The margin in the 99400 profile area is of transform character.
Ground temperature variations have been analysed to the depth of 160 cm, with respect to meteorological elements and short-wave radiation balance. The database of the ground temperature covers a thirteen month-long period (May 1992 – June 1993), which included both the seasons of complete freezing of the ground and thaw. Special attention has been given to the development of perennial permafrost and its spatial distribution. In summer, the depth of thawing ground varied in different types of ground — at the Polish Polar Station, this was ca. 130 cm. The ground froze completely in the first week of October. Its thawing started in June. The snow cover restrained heat penetration in the ground, which hindered the ground thawing process. Cross-correlation shows a significant influence of the radiation balance (K*) on the values of near-surface ground temperatures (r2 = 0.62 for summer).
This publication begins series of papers on taxonomy of juvenile and little known Mesozoic gastropods from Siberia and Timan region (= Pechora Basin). First part contains general part with geological framework followed by the paleontological part on taxonomy of Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda (exclusive of Neogastropoda). Described are 15 species of gastropods. Three of them are new. They are Chuelskia siberica (Trochidae), Ageria gankinensis (Epitoniidae), and Dzikella chuzikovensis (superfamily and family uncertain). Moreover, described is a new genus Chuelskia (Trochidae). Eight species are left in the open nomenclature. The Siberian gastropods belong mostly to the cosmopolitan fauna while the gastropods of Timan region are the same as those already described from Novaja Zemlja Islands.
The cephalopod diet of the gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua and the Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella was comparatively analyzed at Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands. A total of 125 stomach samples were collected by the water off-loading method from gentoo penguins during the autumns of 1993, 1995 and 1996, and 39 fur seal scats were collected from mid March to April 1988. Cephalopods preyed upon by gentoo penguins were represented by 1974 beaks (1628 lower, 346 upper) which occurred in 50.4% of the samples. Lower beaks identified belonged exclusively to the squid Psychroteuthis glacialis. The mean lower rostral length (LRL) of these beaks was 1.1 mm (range 0.4– 1.8 mm). From the Antarctic fur seal scats 103 beaks (41 lower, 62 upper) were removed from 60.6% of scats which contained prey remains. The cephalopod species identified were Slosarczykovia circumantarctica and P. glacialis which constituted 78.8% and 21.1% in terms of numbers, respectively. The mean lower rostral length for S. circumantarctica was 2.7 mm (range 2.0–3.5 mm), while that of P. glacialis was 1.6 mm (range 1.0–2.5 mm). The foraging behaviour of the two top predators was analyzed and discussed according to the composition and size of their cephalopod prey.
Zooplankton community composition, abundance and biomass from two polar localities – Kongsfjorden (Arctic) and Admiralty Bay (Antarctic) is compared. The community composition of zooplankton in both polar regions included similar taxonomic groups and the diversity at the species level was similar. Even though the overall species composition was different, some species were common for both ecosystems, for example Oithona similis, Microcalanus pygmaeus or Eukrohnia hamata. The abundance and biomass of the main zooplankton components (Copepoda) differed greatly between the two ecosystems, both being of an order of magnitude higher in Kongsfjorden than in Admiralty Bay. Kongsfjorden is situated at the border of two regions what induces high productivity with copepods playing an important role, and there is also a strong advection into the fjord. Admiralty Bay is adjacent to the homogenous Antarctic oceanic ecosystem; some advection into the bay occurs as an effect of tide and wind driven processes. Antarctic krill, which was not included in the present study, occupies most of the primary consumers niche and replaces copepods at the second trophic level.
The issue of maximizing penetration depth with concurrent retaining or enhancement of image resolution constitutes one of the time invariant challenges in ultrasound imaging. Concerns about potential and undesirable side eﬀects set limits on the possibility of overcoming the frequency dependent attenuation eﬀects by increasing peak acoustic amplitudes of the waves probing the tissue. To overcome this limitation a pulse compression technique employing 16 bits Complementary Golay Sequences (CGS) Code was implemented at 4 MHz. In comparison with other, earlier proposed, coded excitation schemes, such as chirp, pseudo-random chirp and Barker codes, the CGS allowed virtually side lobe free operation. Experimental data indicate that the quality — resolution, signal penetration and contrast dynamics — of CGS images is better than the one obtain for standard ultrasonography using short burst excitation.
An overview of the important techniques for detection of optical radiation from the ultraviolet, through visible to infrared spectral regions is presented. At the beginning single-point devices are considered. Next, di.erent application circuits used in direct detection systems together with elucidation of the design of front-end circuits and discussion of their performance are presented. Third part of the paper is devoted to advanced techniques including coherent detection. Finally, the updated information devoted to readout of signals from detector arrays and focal plane arrays is included. It is shown that detector focal plane technology has revolutionized many kinds of imaging in the past 25 years.
There is a growing need for a more accurate assessment of the load carrying capacity of highway bridges. The traditional approach is based on consideration of individual components rather than structures. Consequently, the acceptance criteria are formulated in terms of the allowable stress, or ultimate moment, in a component. However, it has been observed that the load carrying capacity of the whole structure (system) is often much larger than what is determined by the design of components. The diﬀerence can be attributed to the system behaviour. Quantiﬁcation of this diﬀerence is the subject of the system reliability. There is a need to take advantage of the available system reliability methods and advanced structural analysis methods and apply them in the design of bridges and evaluation of existing structures. The current advanced analytical procedures allow for a numerically accurate but deterministic analysis of strain/stress in a bridge. Mathematical procedures exist for the calculation of reliability for various idealized systems: parallel, series, and combinations. There are also new developments in materials, technology, and ﬁeld testing which can be used to improve bridge design and evaluation. This paper deals with calculation of the reliability of the whole bridge structure, taking into account realistic boundary conditions, and site-speciﬁc load and resistance parameters.
Abstract. In this paper we present a new class of neuro-fuzzy systems designed for system modelling and pattern classi.cation. Our approach is characterized by automatic determination of fuzzy inference in the process of learning. Moreover, we introduce several .exibility concepts in the design of neuro-fuzzy systems. The method presented in the paper is characterized by high accuracy which outperforms previous techniques applied for system modelling and pattern classi.cation.
Shape memory alloys are characterised by interesting properties, i.e. shape memory eﬀect and pseudoelasticity, which enable their increasing application. Thermomechanical aspects of martensitic and reverse transformations in TiNi shape memory alloy subjected to tension tests were investigated. The stress-strain characteristics obtained during the tests were completed by the temperature characteristics. The temperature changes were calculated on the basis of thermograms determined by an infrared camera. Taking advantages from the infrared technique, the temperature distributions on the specimen’s surface were found. Heterogeneous temperature distributions, related to the nucleation and development of the new martensite phase, were registered and analysed. A signiﬁcant temperature increase, up to 30 K, was registered during the martensitic transformation. The similar eﬀects of the heterogeneous temperature distribution were observed during unloading, while the reverse transformation, martensite into austenite took place, accompanied by signiﬁcant temperature decrease.
The problem of the design of a perfect reduced-order unknown-input observer for standard systems is formulated and solved. The procedure of designing the observer using well-known canonical form is proposed and illustrated with a numerical example. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the procedure are given.
This paper describes a design process of HALE PW-114 sensor-craft, developed for high altitude (20 km) long endurance (40 h) surveillance missions. Designed as a blended wing (BW) conﬁguration, to be made of metal and composite materials. Wing control surfaces provide longitudinal balance. Fin in the rear fuselage section together with wingtips provide directional stability. Airplane is equipped with retractable landing gear with controlled front leg that allows operations from conventional airﬁelds. According to the initial requirements it is twin engine conﬁguration, typical payload consists of electro-optical/infra-red FLIR, big SAR (synthetic aperture radar) and SATCOM antenna required for the longest range. Tailless architecture was based on both Horten and Northrop design experience. Global Hawk was considered as a reference point – it was assumed that BW design has to possess eﬃciency, relative payload and other characteristics at least the same or even better than that of Global Hawk. FLIR, SAR and SATCOM containers were optimised for best visibility. All payload systems are put into separate modular containers of easy access and quickly to exchange, so this architecture can be consider as a „modular”. An optimisation process started immediately when the so-called “zero conﬁguration”, called PW-111 was ready. It was designed in the canard conﬁguration. A canard was abandoned in HALE PW-113. Instead, new, larger outer wing was designed with smaller taper ratio. New conﬁguration analysis revealed satisfactory longitudinal stability. Calculations suggested better lateral qualities for negative dihedral. These modiﬁcations, leading to aerodynamic improvement, gave HALE PW-114 as a result. The design process was an interdisciplinary approach, and included a selection of thick laminar wing section, aerodynamic optimisation of swept wing, stability analysis, weight balance, structural and ﬂutter analysis, many on-board redundant systems, reliability and maintability analysis, safety improvement, cost and performance optimisation. Presented paper focuses mainly on aerodynamics, wing design, longitudinal control and safety issues. This activity is supported by European Union within V FR, in the area Aeronautics and Space.
In this work studies ofM OVPE growth of InAlGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures are presented. The HRXRD and SIMS measurements indicate the high structural and optical properties as well as high uniformity oft hickness and composition ofI nAlGaAs quantum wells. This work is the .rst step towards elaboration oft he technology oft he strained InAlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures for advanced optoelectronic devices working in the visible part oft he spectrum. The investigations ofSi (n-type), Zn (p-type) .-doped GaAs epilayers and centre Si-.-doped InxGa1-xAs single quantum well (SQW) are presented. The .-doping layer was formed by SiH4 or DEZn introduction during the growth interruption. The electrical and optical properties oft he obtained structures were examined using C-V measurement, EC-V electrochemical pro.ler, Raman spectroscopy (RS), photore.ectance (PR) and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopies. Technology oft hick GaN layers grown on sapphire by HVPE is very promising as a part off reestanding GaN substrates manufacturing. Further works will be focused on the optimisation of growth, separating layers from substrates and surface polishing. The in.uence oft he growth parameters on the properties of( Ga, Al)N/Al2O3 and Mg dopant incorporation was studied.