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Tekst prezentuje filozoficzno-filologiczną analizę pojęcia świadomości uwarunkowanej (rnam shes) w filozofii tybetańskiej, z jej korzeniami w myśli indyjskiej. Kontekstem rozważań jest buddyzm, ujęty jako system zmierzający do transformacji świadomości uwarunkowanej w świadomość pierwotną.
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On May 7, 2010 the act dated March 4, 2010 on the spatial information infrastructure was published which transposes the European Parliament and the European Council Directive No 2007/2/WE dated March 14, 2007 established the spatial information infrastructure (INSPIRE) in the European Community. This act introduced basic changes to the binding Act, i.e. the Law of Geodesy and Cartography and, as the consequence, the demand to develop various administrative decrees occurred. The authors of the paper present the analysis of the existing conditions of the cadastre, the task of governmental and public government administration, related to demands concerning the cadastral reforms, following the act on the spatial information infrastructure and they discuss possibilities to perform such reforms at the local and national scales.
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The objective of the present deliberations was to systematise our knowledge of static visual variables used to create cartographic symbols, and also to analyse the possibility of their utilisation in the Augmented Reality (AR) applications on smartphone-type mobile devices. This was accomplished by combining the visual variables listed over the years by different researchers. Research approach was to determine the level of usefulness of particular characteristics of visual variables such as selective, associative, quantitative and order. An attempt was made to provide an overview of static visual variables and to describe the AR system which is a new paradigm of the user interface. Changing the approach to the presentation of point objects is caused by applying different perspective in the observation of objects (egocentric view) than it is done on traditional analogue maps (geocentric view). Presented topics will refer to the fast-developing field of cartography, namely mobile cartography. Particular emphasis will be put on smartphone-type mobile devices and their applicability in the process of designing cartographic symbols.
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This paper presents the proposition of cartographic presentation of the movable cultural heritage on interactive map. The original solution on how to link movable monuments with geographical space as well as the different types of spatial reference were described. The text shows both: the way of presentation of single movable monuments and collections of historical objects. The proposed solutions were based on the assumption that the number of heritage resources shown on the map is huge and, what is more, they can keep growing. So, the proposed solution must be able to apply for a resource of indeterminate size. For the presentation of the movable heritage the traditional methods of cartographic presentation, as well as interactive technologies were applied.
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The paper presents methods of area calculation, which may be applied for big geodesic polygons on the ellipsoid. Proposal developed by the authors of this paper is discussed. The proposed methods are compared with other, alternative methods of area calculation of such polygons. Test calculations are performed for administrative units in Poland. The obtained results are also compared with areas of those units registered in statistical annals. Utilisation of the equal-area map projections of the ellipsoid onto a plane seems to be the best solution for the discussed task. In the case of small distances between points we may expect accurate results of calculations, since the area size is influenced by the projection reductions only, which are small in such cases. In some cases their influence on results of calculations may be neglected. Then, only re-calculation of co-ordinates from the GRS80 ellipsoid to the cartographic, equal-area projection is required.
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This study presents an attempt to design geographical visualisation tools that allow to tackle the immensity of spatial data provided by Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), both in terms of temporal and spatial aspects. In accordance with the assumptions made at the conceptual stage, the final action was the implementation of the window entitled ‘Geovisualisation of the Panoramio.com Activities in District of Poznań 2011’ into the web browser. The concept has been based on a division of the geovisualisation window into three panels, of which the most important - in order to capture spatial variability - have statistical maps at the general level (dot map and choropleth map), while at the detailed level - a dot map on a topographic reference map or tourist map. For two ranges, temporal variability is presented by graphs, while a review of attributes of individual activities of the social website in question is set forward in the table panel. The element that visually interlinks all of the panels is the emphasised individual activity.
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Abstrakt

The wide access to source data, published by numerous websites, results in situation, when information acquisition is not a problem any more. The real problem is how to transform information in the useful knowledge . Cartographic method of research, dealing with spatial data, has been serving this purpose for many years. Nowadays, it allows conducting analyses at the high complexity level, thanks to the intense development in IT technologies, The vast majority of analytic methods utilizing the so-called data mining and data enrichment techniques, however, concerns non-spatial data. According to the Authors, utilizing those techniques in spatial data analysis (including analysis based on statistical data with spatial reference), would allow the evolution of the Spatial Information Infrastructure (SII) into the Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure (SKI). The SKI development would benefit from the existence of statistical geoportal. Its proposed functionality, consisting of data analysis as well as visualization, is outlined in the article. The examples of geostatistical analyses (ANOVA and the regression model considering the spatial neighborhood), possible to implement in such portal and allowing to produce the “cartographic added value”, are also presented here
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The calcareous microfossil assemblage from Middle Miocene strata of SHALDRIL Site NBP0602A−5D consists of bent hic foraminifera, ostracods, bivalves, and gastropods, and is interpreted as shallow−water. It appears to be reworked but its age is probably similar to the age of the host sediment, which contains only rare, fragmented, agglutinated foraminifera. Most of the calcareous taxa are of uncertain taxonomic affiliation, due to the scarcity of Cenozoic microfossils of this age from West Antarctica, and also the very different paleohabitat of this now extinct assemblage.
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The eight most abundant species (mean density >20 ind. m −2 ), which occurred at high frequencies (mean >30%) were selected from grab samples in the three Svalbard fjords: Hornsund, van Mijenfjord, and Kongsfjord, in the summer seasons between 1997 and 2007. Six polychaete and two bivalve species comprised more than 47% of the individuals and the biomass in all the samples examined. Four species are cosmopolitan, while the others are widely distributed Arctic−boreal species, and none has Arctic origin. Their density, frequency of occurrence, and biology are very similar across the wide geographical range from boreal to Arctic conditions. As the diversity of benthic fauna in the fjords studied increases (from 172 to 238 species), the dominance of the eight species in the soft bottom community diminishes from 76% to 47%. In times of hydrological regime shift, i.e. , the warming of the European Arctic, it is unlikely that the abundancy of these species in the soft bottom fjordic ecosystems will change. The most common soft bottom species are not good indicators of environmental change in the Arctic, and rare, specialized species are better option for indicative purposes.
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A total of 212 soil profiles were described and assessed for physical and chemical properties during July 2006 as part of an Ecological Land Classification study along the Churchill River in central Labrador. Two major soil types were found in the study area along the Churchill River: Podzols and Organic soils. Podzolic soils covered approximately 60% and Organic soils occurred in 24% of the study area. Approximately 15% of the study area was classified as rock and other unconsolidated material. Summary results and a sub−set of the following soil units (from 10 soil profiles) are presented here and were distinguished according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification (CSSC) (Soil Classification Working Group 1998): Orthic Humo−Ferric Podzol, Placic Ferro−Humic Podzol, Gleyed Humo−Ferric Podzol, Sombric Humo−Ferric Podzol, Gleyed Regosol and Orthic Luvic Gleysol. The basic properties of the soil units identified above included: (i) morpho− logical descriptions of soil profiles with differentiated horizons; (ii) field−texture tests were used to determine classes and physical properties of sands, silts, loams and occurrence of mottles; and (iii) a range of soil chemical composition of different horizons ( e.g. , pH, total organic carbon [TOC] and select metal concentrations) which indicated no anthropogenic contamination above background concentrations in the area.
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A comparison between the levels of infection with Acanthocephala of the fish Notothenia coriiceps in Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic) in 1978/79 and 2007/08 is presented. The same eight acanthocephalan species, three echinorhynchids maturing in fish, Aspersentis megarhynchus (dominant species), Metacanthocephalus johnstoni (subdominant species) and M. dalmori (common species), and five polymorphids maturing in mammals and birds, Corynosoma hamanni , C. pseudohamanni (both co−dominant species), C. arctocephali and C. bullosum (both common species), and C. shackletoni (rare species), were found. Echinorhynchids were more numerous in 2007/08 (mean abundance 46.54 versus 35.35 in 1978/79), whereas polymorphids more numerous in 1978/79 (mean abundance 74.35 versus 36.40 in 2007/08). The overall results therefore demonstrated that echinorhynchids were more numerous than polymorphids in 2007/08 and the reverse was true in 1978/79. This situation is dependent mainly upon the decreased infections with C. hamanni , C. pseudohamanni and C. bullosum , and to a lesser degree upon the increasing of infections with M. johnstoni . The decrease of the three Corynosoma spp. is possibly associated with the decreasing of populations of final hosts, seals, on the shore of Admiralty Bay in the vicinity of Arctowski Station.
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A new genus and species of heteronemertean from the Antarctic (Bellingshausen Sea), Oligodendrorhynchus hesperides , is described and illustrated. Some morphological features with major systematic significance are following: the mode of branching of the proboscis and its low number of terminal branches; the lack of horizontal lateral cephalic slits but in their place a pair of shallow epidermal depressions; a gelatinous amorphous connective stratum between the outer longitudinal and circular muscle layers; the presence of a rhynchocoelic nerve; isolated fibres of the rhynchocoel circular muscle layer interwoven with bundles of the adjacent body−wall inner longitudinal muscle fibres in the intestinal region. Other anatomical characters which can also be used to distinguish the new taxon from existing heteronemertean species that have a branched proboscis are also discussed.
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Studies of past vegetation from the inner fjords of the Svalbard archipelago have not previously been reported. This study assesses the potential of sediments retrieved from two sites in Petuniabukta, Billefjorden to track vegetation response to Quaternary climate change. The first sediment profile was retrieved from periodic lake on a 4 m a.s.l. marine terrace with a basal radiocarbon dated to 5 080 ± 30 BP, the second was retrieved from a depression in wet tundra on a 24 m a.s.l. marine terrace, which upper part was dated to 9 470 ± 30 BP. The study is primarily focused on macro- and micro−fossils. Pollen grains are present in very low concentrations. Macro−fossils were represented mostly by leafs and buds of Salix species and Dryas octopetala as well as the hybrid Salix herbacea x polaris . Fossil moss remains represent an important part of arctic ecosystems. Tardigrada remains were found in the sediments in high abundance whilst eggs and exuviae of at least six species were identified. The sediments are definitely suitable for the reconstruction of past conditions. However, it is necessary to take care not to focus at single type of analysis, as pollen analysis appeared uninformative and more information was obtained from plant macro − fossils (mosses, vascular plants). Little attention has been given to Tardigrada in the past, as they were overlooked and the preservation in sediments is usually very low.
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A new thambematid species, Thambema thunderstruckae sp. n., is described from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic. Specimens of the new species were collected during two Polish Antarctic Expeditions in 1985 and 2007. It is the first record of this family from the Southern Hemisphere. The new species most closely resembles Thambema golanachum Harrison, 1987 and T. fiatum Harrison, 1987 but can be distinguished from both species by the shape of male pleopod 1, the number of claws on pereopods 2–7 and the setation of pereopod 1 and 2 carpus, respectively. A key to all known genera and species in the family Thambematidae is also provided.
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Abstrakt

Poa annua L. is the only non−native vascular plant that was successfully established in the maritime Antarctic. This project aimed to determine the amount of genetic and epigenetic variation within and between two populations of P. annua , one from South Shetland Is. (Antarctic) and the other one from Central Europe. We applied two AFLP marker systems, using endonucleases that recognised the same restriction site but differed in their sensitivity towards methylation. The Antarctic population differed from the Polish one both at the genetic and epigenetic levels. Genetic variability in the Antarctic population was lower than in the Polish one. Some loci in the Antarctic population showed signs of selection. The difference between Polish and Antarctic populations might be due to a weak bottleneck effect followed by population expansion. Using only epigenetic markers, the Ant − arctic population exhibited increased variation level compared to the Polish one. These may have resulted from plastic responses to environmental factors and could be associated with survival in extreme conditions.
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