Palynological and archaeobotanical analyses were conducted on excavated sediments from Tse Dura, a Later Stone Age rock shelter in north-central Nigeria with the aim of reconstructing the environment conditions at the site within the last millennium. From 933 ± 29 BP to 802 ± 29 BP, the environment alternated between Guinea savanna with dry conditions, and secondary and riverine forests with humid conditions. During these periods of environmental fluctuations, the LSA populations engaged in the management of economic plants the most significant of which included Dioscorea spp. Pennisetum glaucum and Elaeis guineensis, and exploited wild plants such as Pavetta crassipes, Sarcocephalus latifolius and Lophira cf. lanceolata for dietary and ethnomedicinal purposes. Around 310 ± 30 BP cal, the environment became very wet after which it was succeeded by a drier period. It was during this period that Sorghum bicolor became prominent, and the environment attained its current status dominated by Guinea savanna elements and secondary forests.
The purpose of this research is to develop a Lean-RFID based waste identification system (LRWIS) for small-medium manufacturing companies. The specific objective of this research is to develop and implement the LRWIS from integrating the appropriate lean tools and advanced technologies for wastes reduction and inventory management. Subsequently, the framework was converted into a system for a small-medium sized wood processing manufacturer in Malaysia and integrated into a computerized program. The LRWIS can monitor real-time inventory and production status so the manufacturer can optimise the quantity of the primary products and deliver them on time as per the RFID information of each container. The manufacturer can also make decision instantly for controlling and changing different products in the production progress. The system provides simple constructed framework under a low cost infrastructure, yet it is of practical value in reducing the wastes and also optimising the production process.
This paper presents the modeling and the resolution of a two dimensional cutting stock problem for a wooden industry. It is about a real problem of minimization of the wood wastes for an industry of furnishing. The raw material to be cut is a set of beams of various sizes. The purpose of the cut is to supply a list of orders characterized by a set of articles of various sizes. The problem is converted into an integer linear program where the decision variables are the numbers of beams to cut according to a set of feasible “patterns”. The designed solution is a heuristic in two stages: – Generation of the feasible patterns by various classic heuristics of the Bin-packing Problem. – Resolution of the integer linear program with the generated patterns as input variables. Moreover, based on this approach, the “Application Cutting Optimization” is developed to allow the immediate resolution of the problem and widening the stock management horizon. To end, a real case is studied to confirm the effectiveness of this approach.
Lean manufacturing has been the most deliberated concept ever since its introduction. Many organization across the world implemented lean concept and witnessed dramatic improvements in all contemporary performance parameters. Lean manufacturing has been a sort of mirage for the Indian automotive industry. The present research investigated the key lean barriers to lean implementation through literature survey, confirmatory factor analysis, multiple regression, and analytic network process. The general factors to lean implementation were inadequate lean planning, resource constraints, half-hearted commitment from management, and behavioral issues. The most important factor in the context of lean implementation in Indian automotive industry was inadequate lean planning found with the help of confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. Further analysis of these extracted factors through analytic network process suggested the key lean barriers in Indian automotive industry, starting from the most important were absence of proper lean implementation methodology, lack of customer focus, absence of proper lean measurement system, inadequate capital, improper selection of lean tools & practices, leadership issues, resistance to change, and poorly defined roles & responsibilities. Though literature identifying various lean barriers are available. The novelty of current research emerges from the identification and subsequent prioritization of key lean barriers within Indian automotive SMEs environment. The research assists in smooth transition from traditional to lean system by identifying key barriers and developing customized framework of lean implementation for Indian automotive SMEs.
One of the key factors of a competitive economy is creating a strong, internationally competitive SME sector. This essay is based on the fact that management tools used in the SME sector are insufficient. With the development of these tools, the competitiveness of companies could improve. According to the literature, using lean thinking has a positive influence on the company’s effectiveness, and also proved that lean approach can be successfully extended out of the car industry, into the limitedly resourced SME sector, too. Even though the topic of lean manufacturing is analysed by many studies, there is a lack of papers dealing with its usage in the SME sector. The originality of this paper lies in analysing the current status of using lean manufacturing practices among the Hungarian SMEs operating in the manufacturing industry. The paper includes an examination about how deeply the elements of lean thinking are present in the Hungarian SME sector, how large the development reserves are, and whether there is a difference between the usage of lean practices. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. SMEs’ representatives, mostly CEOs and managers from the Hungarian manufacturing industry participated in the survey. The sample contained 128 observations. The study has two control variables, which are the size of the company and the relation to the lean management. The survey brought the following results. First of all, it shows that the level of using lean is low among the Hungarian SMEs. Furthermore, customer orientation is a key factor in the sector, however, there are considerable possibilities for progress by the inner processes and the handling and involvement of the suppliers. Firstly, a good basis to increase the effectiveness could be the creation of thinking in processes influencing the supply chain. Secondly, the development of the leadership and the involvement of the employees at some level are also significant. Key findings is that without state incitement and the involvement of outside experts, progress cannot be expected to spread on a broad scope. The background of the research method was created to fit the available literature and to capable to be used in other countries, too. Moreover, this way the available information can be expanded with a regional dimension, in case further studies are going to be made.
Depression is not sexually stimulating, yet there exist multiple cultural representations of deeply unhappy women, who reach the height of their beauty when suicidal, or dead. From Ophelia, damsels in distress and swooning Victorian hysterics, ending with contemporary fashion, female suffering is glamourized. My paper answers the question why female depression is presented as sexy by culture. I seek the explanation in gender stereotypes as well as the tradition of ‘heroic melancholia’.
The motif of death and the maiden, so popular in literature and painting, is referred to directly in Samuel Beckett’s All that Fall, when Franz Schubert’s piece of music, under such a title, is heard at the end of this radio drama. When discussing the vision of human existence, as consistently presented in this great Irishman’s oeuvre, it is advisable to become acquainted with the basic concepts of Martin Heidegger’s philosophy, and also with Beckett’s essay Proust in which he discusses human life, characterised by suffering as “the expiation for the eternal sin of having been born.” This article discusses death in the Beckettland of suffering. Death hardly ever comes to young characters, the majority of Beckett’s characters being either old or, at least, middle-aged, are all still longing for their end to come. Despite finding different kinds of pastimes to make their waiting less oppressive, time seems to be, as it were, at a standstill, and, to use Vladimir’s words from Waiting for Godot, they “have time to grow old.”
Micro-(h)istorical narratives by Claude Duneton and Jean Echenoz – The purpose of this article is a comparative study of two recent French novels, Le Monument. Roman vrai by Claude Duneton (2004) and 1914 by Jean Echenoz (2012), which, in spite of formal and ideological differences, approach the theme of the Great War in a way similar to micro-historical frameworks. Like historians representing this field of historiography, both writers depict the four years of the First World War by focusing on a small community and a geographical space limited to a small location on the home-front. Referring to the distinction between roman de l’historien (the historian’s novel) and roman du témoin (the witness’s novel) proposed by Emmanuel Bouju, the author of the article analyses the strategies used by the novelists to create an indirect witness’s point-of-view, juxtaposed with the perspective of the contemporary recipient of the events that happened a hundred years ago.
In father’s footsteps or a problematic filiation. Dominique Jamet’s case – There is a phenomenon to be observed in contemporary French literature, namely the renewal of the novel through writing about self and the day-to-day reality in the context of family history. Writers reach into the past, often traumatic and painful, in order to rebuild their own broken identity, scarred by the memory of their parents’ troubled past. This is the case with Dominique Jamet. He returns to history with a capital H (the interwar period, World War Two, the Vichy regime and the subsequent issues of accounting for collaboration), so as to draw the figure of his father, Claude, an “intellectual” turncoat. The questionable filiation is the point of departure for writing two autobiographical texts. Also, it had undoubtedly been an inspiration for Un traître, a novel published in 2008, which is a fictitious reconstruction of the biography of Jacques Vasseur, an infamous French collaborator.
Harriet said…, a lesser known, 1972 novel by an acclaimed writer Beryl Bainbridge (1932–2010), is a work about friendship. However, only apparently – as the events in the story unfold, the reader slowly realizes how toxic and corrupting the bond between the eponymous Harriet and her nameless friend (the narrator) is. Bainbridge, inspired by real-life tragedy, presents a haunting vision of friendship marred by violence, both emotional and physical. Two adolescent girls devise a specific life ideology and as they explore the limits of their self-understanding, they transgress social norms, which ultimately leads them to a completely gratuitous crime. Hence, an important questions arises – is it still a friendship or, rather, a form of mutual exploitation? What makes their relationship Gothic? The aim of my analysis will be to respond to these queries.
Buffy The Vampire Slayer was a television series broadcast from 1997 to 2003. The narrative follows the heroine, Buffy Summers, ostensibly a normal teen, however she is also the latest in a long line of Slayers. Death is a gift of the Slayer. The three facets of this gift point to the conclusion that Buffy, the Maiden, is Death.
Many Haitian writers since the earthquake that destroyed Port-au-Prince in January 2010 have developed in their works of fiction the theme of writing the disaster, expressing it in various forms. The aim of this paper is to analyze the strategies adopted to write about the psychological and social effects of the cataclysmic event in two post-earthquake novels, Marvin Victor’s Corps mêlés (2011) and Makenzy Orcel’s Les Immortelles (2010). In questioning the relationship between literature and the present-time, the two Haitian writers chose different styles and forms to transpose into fiction the disruptions caused by the earthquake. We will focus our attention on two narrative strategies in particular: the interior monologue chosen by Victor and the hybrid narration preferred by Orcel.
In his fifth novel La Nuit des morts-vivants, François Blais, a Quebec writer of the young generation, created yet another pair of kindred spirits after Iphigénie en Haute-Ville. The characters are young people addicted to all kinds of fiction, from high literature to video games, and they make reflections on the borders between fiction and reality that are worthy of a literary critic or a very conscious reader. Devoting every moment that they have at their disposal to reading books, watching films, and playing video games, Pavel and Moly are outstanding due to their erudition, even if they are simultaneously typical representatives of the generation with low-paid jobs or living on social benefits and realizing themselves only in the substitute world of fiction.
In this comparative study of Angela Carter’s “The Lady of the House of Love” (1979) and Werner Herzog’s Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht (1979) eating habits, relation to the domestic and to (ir)rationality are examined in the female and male characters in both works to show how their authors create gender hybridity. Drawing upon Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick’s Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (1985), the article proposes that the hybridity reproduces patriarchal transfer of power.
Contemporary biographical fictions in France: between narrative and visual – This paper discusses an evolution of point of view on biographical fictions from 90’ to the present, due to the important increase of literary practices exploring images and their role in the constitution of the biographical discourse. The relation between fiction and reality presented from the point of view of Paul Ricoeur’s ‘narrative identity’ in first approaches of biographical fictions is now substituted by the reflection about the relation between narrative and visual which discloses, particularly in the case of biographical portraits of writers, the commemorative aspects of a literary text.
This article looks at the allusions made by Austrian artists Birgit Jürgenssen and Assunta Abdel Azim Mohamed to the historical genres “Dance of Death” and “Death and the Maiden”. I examine in particular Jürgenssen’s series “Totentanz mit Mädchen” and “Untitled Polaroids” (also known as the “Death and the Maiden” polaroids). I raise the significance of her titles and argue that she is dancing with the genre, in effect with art history itself. Then I consider Mohamed, 43 years Jürgenssen’s junior. I propose her as an heir of Jürgenssen. I argue that one of the reasons both artists allude to the two traditional genres is in order for the work to address the nature of art itself.
The Dilemmas of the Kaliningrad Oblast Today. The Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea neighbouring with the EU countries of Poland and Lithuania. On one hand, the Oblast belongs to the Russian political, economic and defence area, and on the other, it is separated from other parts of the Russian Federation. This specific location affects the nature of the local economy, the dependence on import and a drive towards cooperating with countries abroad. The economic situation of the Kaliningrad Oblast is strictly related to the economic situation of the remaining parts of Russia. Kaliningrad is subject to principles established by the federal centre, and Moscow decides about the most important issues of the region. At the same time, the Oblast makes efforts to provide conditions for social and economic development comparable to the development standards of neighbouring countries. The residents of the Oblast can be characterised by a sense of own identity, their openness to Europe, as well as activeness and entrepreneurship as compared to other Russian citizens. The greatest number of military units in Russia cluster in Kaliningrad Oblast. This potential is continually strengthened with the progressing modernisation of Russian military forces. Small border traffic, initiated in July 21 between the Republic of Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the RF, had a major impact on the animation, volume and the dynamics of cross-border relations and the promotion of Poland. In July 2016, the Polish side suspended the project.
Circular economy – a new approach in the understanding of the human–environment relationship. The work presented the assumptions of the circular economy as a new concept of the economy functioning with the method of production “from cradle to cradle” constituting the opposition to the commonly used linear economy approach (take, make, dispose). Work discussed also the impact on the quality of human life and the management of environmental resources. Functional assumptions of the circular economy and its territorial dimension were presented, especially in urban areas where the green economy and sharing economy mechanisms are used. The potential for economic growth and the creation of new jobs was also emphasized due to the implementation of circular economy in the EU countries.
Public space in geographical and social aspects. Space as a scientific and social term has many interpretations. Work organizes mutual relations between various kinds of spaces. The paper focuses on the contemporary determinants of shaping a public space in cities regarding the popularization of information and communication technologies. Attention was also paid to the metric feature of social spaces because it is usually neglected while constructing such spaces.
Socio-economic development as well as factors and determinants of development. The scientific language, as well as everyday and literary language, is in constant development. The effect of this development is the multiplication of flavored notions and concepts leading to many misunderstandings and ambiguities, which should not happen in the scientific language. The presented texts should be written in a language that is clear, simple, logical, unambiguous and understandable, and their interpretation should not cause problems. This article presents remarks concerning the interpretation of such basic notions of socio-economic sciences as socio-economic development, economic growth and factors and conditions of development, quite freely used in scientific texts. It also contains the correct interpretation of these notions, especially in reference to the language of socio-economic geography, regional economics and socio-economic and spatial development and planning. Only an unambiguously interpreted text can be a platform for mutual understanding, basis for scientific discussion and the way to the the real development of science.
The evolution of David Harvey’s scientific interests. David Harvey’s work is a significant example of evolution and differences in contemporary human geography. It is characterised especially by three features related to one another: a constant change in scientific and research interests, a tendency to bridge the divisions between geographical specialities and scientific disciplines and the inclination towards deep theoretical and methodological reflection. A temporal and problem analysis allows distinguishing two phases of his research interests. In the first, neopositivist one, Harvey discusses methodological aspects of geography, being part of the process of changes in the research pattern of the maternal discipline; in the second, as a confirmed Marxist and radical geographer, he critically analyses contemporary urbanisation and the ideas of postmodernism and neoliberalism. Along with the evolution of scientific and research interests, Harvey’s approach to the examined issues changes – from an inquisitive researcher, concerned with the state of a native scientific discipline, he becomes a critical observer and a reformer of the surrounding reality.