The article covers the systematic basis for the creation of new technological processes of corn harvesting machines. Modern corn-harvesting machines have reached certain thresholds according to their technological properties that most significantly affect the final production and economic indicators of planting corn for grain efficiency, still they do not meet modern requirements. The technological properties mentioned above are hardly adjusted for wide range of physical and mechanical properties of the plants and crop parameters. This situation is caused by new machine´s working parts being viewed by researchers and developers as complex technical systems not from the standpoint of general systems theory but in terms of the use of traditional knowledge of the laws of agricultural mechanics, thus not getting proper attention to their systematic coordination with working conditions. Based on this, the paper presents a structural scheme for the system “mechanized corn for grain harvesting”, key elements of which are: agricultural (А), engineering (В) and selectional (С) supply. Interconnection of the subsystem´s elements and their consistency determine the effectiveness of the whole process. Inconsistency of the links АВ and ВC is observed. The conceptual system “mechanized corn for grain harvesting” design relates to the field with clear NO-factors: incompleteness, uncertainty, inconsistency and lack of information for decision making, thus it is important to review tasks of conceptual design from the most general constructual standpoint. The method of describing systems at the conceptual level is suggested. This systematic representation of corn-harvesting machines allows to approach the task of their workflows modeling from the most general standpoint.
Celem artykułu jest opis i ocena roli debaty akademickiej w sytuacji poważnego konfl iktu społeczno – kulturowego. Przedmiotem analiz jest wybrany przypadek – reakcje środowiska akademickiego w Polsce na kryzys migracyjny oraz kontrowersje związane z przyjęciem uchodźców. Spór o uchodźców obejmuje zarówno kwestie religijne, etyczne, społeczno-kulturowe, psychologiczne, polityczne, jak i ekonomiczne. Jest więc odpowiednim polem analizy roli szkół wyższych i badaczy reprezentujących różne dyscypliny w kształtowaniu sfery publicznej. Debatą akademicką nazywamy tutaj wymianę opinii podczas zgromadzeń z udziałem osób reprezentujących uczelnie i ośrodki badawcze. Od jesieni 2015 roku toczy się w Polsce dyskusja na temat kryzysu migracyjnego i przyjęcia uchodźców. Wiele wskazuje na to, że ta kwestia będzie już stałym tematem dyskursu publicznego. Przedmiotem naszego zainteresowania były te wydarzenia, które miały charakter akademicki (konferencje, seminaria, dyskusje organizowane przez ośrodki akademickie) lub debaty z udziałem osób reprezentujących środowiska akademickie. Analizie poddaliśmy tylko treści tych debat, których tematem zasadniczym był kryzys migracyjny. Analiza polegała na poszukiwaniu następujących informacji: (1) Kto był organizatorem i uczestnikiem debat oraz według jakich reguł one przebiegały? (2) Jakie postulaty w odniesieniu do decydentów przekazują przedstawiciele środowiska akademickiego? (3) W jakim stopniu i zakresie ta debata wpływa na dyskurs polityczny i medialny?
Control failure of pests and selectivity of insecticides to beneficial arthropods are key data for the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the control failure likelihood of Plutella xylostella and the physiological selectivity active ingredients to parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and to predators Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). In bioassays, P. xylostella larvae and O. sokolowskii, P. scutellaris and Lasiochilus sp. adults were used. Concentration-mortality curves of six insecticides for P. xylostella were established. These curves were used to estimate the mortality of P. xylostella at the recommended concentration, in order to check a control failure of insecticides to this pest. Furthermore, the lethal concentration for 90% of populations (LC90) and the half of LC90 were used in bioassays with the natural enemies to determine the selectivity of these insects to insecticides. All tested insecticides showed control failure to P. xylostella, indicated by high LC90 and low estimated mortalities (less than 80%). The cartap insecticide was selective in half of LC90 to Lasiochilus sp. and moderately selective in LC90 and the half of LC90, to Lasiochilus sp. and P. scutellaris, respectively. Deltamethrin was moderately selective in the half of LC90 to predator Lasiochilus sp. Cartap, carbaryl, and deltamethrin reduced the mortality of Lasiochilus sp. in the half LC90. The results also showed that the insecticides methamidophos, carbaryl, parathion methyl and permethrin were not selective to any of the tested natural enemies. The role of insecticides in IPM systems of Brassica crops is discussed based on their control failures to P. xylostella and selectivity to their natural enemies.
Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most destructive viruses infecting potato in Egypt and worldwide. Recent research has shown that a necrotic PVY-NTN strain is infecting potato in Upper Egypt. Chemical control is not effective to control this viral pathogen. An alternative to control PVY infecting potato is using a mild PVY strain to elicit systemic cross protection in potato plants against infection with a severe necrotic strain of PVY. Results of this study showed that a PVY necrotic strain produced a significant lesser number of local lesions on diagnostic plants (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) when these plants were treated first with a mild PVY strain. Data obtained from greenhouse and field experiments indicated that treatment of potato plants (variety Burna) with a mild PVY strain significantly protected potato from infection with a severe necrotic PVY strain, and resulted in a significant increase in tuber yield compared with infected plants without prior treatment with a mild PVY strain. The highest increase in potato tuber yield was obtained when potato plants were inoculated with a mild PVY strain 3 days before challenging with the severe necrotic PVY strain. This study proved that using a mild strain of PVY can significantly protect potato plants from infection with a severe strain of this virus under both greenhouse and field conditions and can present a potential method to reduce losses due to infection of this virus in Assiut governorate and Upper Egypt.
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the selectivity of nicosulfuron, alone and in combinations, applied in post-emergence (V4) of glyphosate and sulfonylurea tolerant (RR/STS) soybean. The experiments were conducted in 2015/16 and 2016/17, in Piracicaba – state of São Paulo (SP). In 2016/17, the experiment was also conducted in Palotina – state of Paraná (PR). The experiment was a randomized block design, with four repetitions and 16 treatments, with combinations of nicosulfuron, glyphosate, chlorimuron, sulfometuron and cloransulam, applied alone or in tank mixture. Crop injury and variables related to agronomic performance were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by the Tukey test. The results obtained are significant in the positioning of herbicides in RR/STS soybean, since in the five experiments, all the treatments were selective, except for glyphosate + sulfometuron which reduced the yield of a cultivar (CD 2630 RR/STS) in the 2015/16 season.
Quantitative resistance in barley to four Fusarium head blight (FHB) species was investigated in vitro. Nine components involved in three assays (detached leaf, modified Petridish and seedling tests) were compared on two widely grown Syrian barley cultivars: Arabi Aswad (AS) and Arabi Abiad (AB). On AB, inoculation with FHB species resulted in a significantly shorter latent period and larger lesion length of detached leaf inoculation, more standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) of modified Petridish inoculation and a higher percentage of infected seedlings of pin-point inoculation than on AS. The latent period of AB was 14.89% less than AS, lesion length of AS was 6.01% less than AB, AUDPCstandard of AS was 17.07% less than AB and the percentage of infected seedlings of AS was 4.87% less than AB. Inoculation with FHB species resulted in no significant differences in the other five components measured: incubation period of detached leaf inoculation, germination rate reduction and coleoptile length reduction of modified Petridish inoculation, percentage of infected seedlings of foliar-spraying inoculation and lesion length of clip-dipping inoculation. AS was more resistant to in vitro FHB infection than AB. The latent period and AUDPCstandard recorded the highest values compared with the lowest values for lesion length and percentage of infected seedlings. It seems that measurement of the latent period and AUDPCstandard may be useful in identifying barley cultivars which are highly susceptible or resistant to FHB at early stages.
The species structure of plant parasitic nematode populations from the rhizosphere of winter wheat grown with crop rotation or in 48-year-old monoculture was analyzed and compared. Dominating species: Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius microdorus, Paratylenchus neglectus and Heterodera avenae, in monoculture plots, had higher populations than in crop rotation plots. Heterodera avenae eggs and larvae were infected by pathogenic fungi in 68% of the monoculture crops (vs. 65–66% of the cysts from crop rotation), 12–20% of Paratylenchus sp. specimens were colonized by bacteria, mainly by Bacillus penetrans. This study shows nematological changes occurring in long-term wheat breeding, thus providing additional information necessary to fight dangerous viral vectors of the examined cereal.
Concerns about food quality and environmental protection have led to the search for effective and safe insect control measures. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of some insecticides (malathion, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin) and clove oil, alone and in combinations, to protect wheat grain against Rhyzopertha dominica. Adult mortality, progeny emergence and weight loss of treated grain were examined. The results revealed that the tested insecticides and clove oil alone showed high efficiency to R. dominica with respect to mortality, progeny of the adults and weight loss of wheat grain. The mixing of lambda-cyhalothrin and clove oil with the most effective insecticide (alphacypermethrin) enhanced its efficacy to R. dominica. It was more efficient against R. dominica than when used alone with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. However, mixing alpha-cypermethrin with malathion reduced the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin against R. dominica with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. Combinations of alpha-cypermethrin and clove oil reduced wheat grain loss more than using them alone. Mixing lambda-cyhalothrin and clove oil with low concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin improved its efficacy against R. dominica and therefore may reduce environmental pollution, lower risks to human health, and delay insect resistance development.
Potato white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important plant disease occurring in many potato-producing areas throughout the world. In this study, a specific diagnostic method was used to detect and quantify S. sclerotiorum ascospores, and its forecasting ability was assessed in potato fields during flowering periods of 2011 to 2014 in Bahar County, Hamedan Province. Using GenEMBL database, a primer pair, HZSCREV and HZSCFOR, was designed and optimized for the pathogen. After testing the sensitivity of primers, DNA was extracted from samples of outdoor Burkard traps from potato fields. A linear association was observed between pathogen DNA and the number of ascospores using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique in the presence of SYBR dye. The qPCR could successfully detect DNA amounts representing two S. sclerotiorum ascospores and was not sensitive to a variety of tested fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria brassicae, Fusarium solani. In contrast to the amount of rainfall, a direct relationship was found between ascospore numbers and the incidence of potato white mold from 2011 to 2014.
Severe leaf spot disease was observed on Aloe vera plants in the winters of 2011 and 2012 during a survey of various nurseries of Gwalior, India. Irregular, sunken, dark creamish brown spots having reddish brown margin were noticed on both surfaces of the leaves. The causal organism was consistently isolated from symptomatic leaves on potato dextrose agar media (PDA). A total 59 isolates of fungi were recovered from diseased A. vera leaves, and 37 isolates were identified as belonging to the genus Fusarium. On the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA amplified using the primers ITS4/ITS5 the pathogen was identified as Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and pathogenicity of the isolate was confirmed by using Koch’s postulates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of leaf spot disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum on A. vera plants in India.
The response of the Mi-1 gene to different densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 was investigated under controlled conditions. Susceptible and resistant tomato seedlings were inoculated with 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10000 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita. Plants were uprooted 8 weeks after inoculation and the numbers of egg masses and galls on the roots, and second-stage juveniles in 100 g soil per pot were counted. In susceptible plants, there was a correlation between the number of egg masses on roots until 2000 J2 inoculum densities. In resistant plants, when inoculum densities increased, the number of egg masses and galls also increased. The reproduction factor ratio was >1 in the susceptible plant and <1 in the resistant plant. The data showed that the 5000 J2 inoculum was a critical limit, and 10000 J2s were above threshold for resistant plants. The data indicate that densities of M. incognita can seriously affect the performance of the Mi-1 gene.
Biological control of plant diseases is strongly emerging as an effective alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fungicides. Stress tolerance is an important attribute in the selection of bacteria for the development of microbial inoculants. Fourteen salt-tolerant bacteria showing different morphological features isolated from the rhizosphere of maize were evaluated for different plant growth-promoting activities. All isolates showed auxin production ranging from 5 to 24 μg ⋅ ml–1 after 48 h incubation in tryptophan supplemented media. Phosphate solubilization ranged from 15 to 419 μg ⋅ ml–1. 1-aminocycloproprane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was shown by 6 isolates, ammonia production by 9 isolates, siderophore production by 8 isolates while HCN production by 4 isolates. Four bacterial isolates with all plant growth-promoting properties also showed strong antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Curvularia lunata and Alternaria alternata and abiotic stress tolerance against salinity, temperature, pH and calcium salts. Two selected bacterial isolates significantly enhanced the growth of pea and maize test plants under greenhouse conditions. The bacterial isolate M1B2, which showed the highest growth promotion of test plants, was identified as Bacillus sp. based on phenotypic and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The results indicated that Bacillus sp. M1B2 is a potential candidate for the development of microbial inoculants in stressful environments.
Water samples were collected from irrigation ditches and drainage canals surrounding fields in southern Greater Poland. Initially, the samples were subjected to low and highspeed centrifugation and obtained pellets were used to perform biological assays. Viral identification involved biological, electron microscopic as well as molecular methods. The occurrence of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was demonstrated in 12 of the 17 examined water sources. The molecular analysis results showed TMV and ToMV co-infections in the analysed water samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tobamoviruses being found in environmental water in Poland.
Our research provides novel information concerning the insecticidal activity of Brassica alba mustard oil applied to the intestinal tract via insects’ diet against pests from the order Lepidoptera: Cydia pomonella, Dendrolimus pini, and Spodoptera exigua. The LC50 value of the oil against C. pomonella was 0.422 mg ⋅ ml–1. The LC50 of the plant oil against D. pini was 11.74 mg ⋅ ml–1. The LC50 of the botanical product against S. exigua was 11.66 mg ⋅ ml–1. The plant substance was the most active against C. pomonella in comparison with D. pini and S. exigua. The LC50 values of the oil against D. pini and S. exigua were similar. The plant oil exhibited high insecticidal activity against pests from the order Lepidoptera and may prove to be an effective biopesticide.
In August 2016, tomato plants grown during a hot, wet summer with heavy soil flooding, displaying symptoms of wilting, dead plant, root rot with crown and stem rot, at Beni Suef and Fayoum governorates were examined. A number of 16 fungal isolates were isolated from tomato plants displaying the above symptoms. These isolates were classified as belonging to six species, namely: Alternaria solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Isolates of Pythium spp. were prevalent and were found to be more pathogenic than the other fungal isolates. This species causes damping-off, root rot, sudden death, stem rot and fruit rot. The pathogen was identified as Pythium aphanidermatum based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced using the F. oxysporum strain and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of these spherical particles ranged from 10 to 30 nm. In vitro, biogenic AgNPs showed antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. In greenhouse and field experiments, AgNPs treatment significantly reduced the incidence of dead tomato plants due to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum compared to the control. All of the investigated treatments were effective and the treatment of root dipping plus soil drenching was the most effective. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes P. aphanidermatum on tomato in Egypt for the first time. Also, biogenic AgNPs could be used for controlling root rot disease caused by this pathogen.
Introduction: Interventional cardiology (IC) is a rapidly expanding fi eld of medicine. Medical studies should provide students the necessary level of knowledge about new techniques in IC. The aim of the study was to assess the medical students’ knowledge about various new areas of IC. Material and methods: Self-designed questionnaire was used to assess student’s knowledge. It contained 31 questions. Th e initial 3 questions concerned general information, the remaining ones were related to diff erent IC techniques: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), Bioresorbable Vascular Scaff old (BVS), percutaneous mitral regurgitation repair methods, Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion (LAAO), Renal DeNervation (RDN), Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty (BAV) and Atrial Septal Defect/Persistent Foramen Ovale (ASD/PFO). One point for each correct answer was awarded. Results: In our study participated 104 students. Mean score was 15.9 ± 5.8 points. 24% of participants were 3rd year students, 38% — 4th, 20% — 5th and 18% — 6th. Th ere was no diff erences in level of knowledge between students of diff erent years of studies (p = 0.2). Students from Students Research Groups (SRG) achieved higher score in comparison with students no attending SRG (19.3 ± 6.3 vs 13.3 ± 3.7; p <0.001) as well as students interested in cardiology comparison with other (19.6 ± 5.9 vs 13.0 ± 3.8; p <0.001). Students from SRG and interested in cardiology reached also higher results in practically every area of IC in comparison with other. Conclusions: Participants have insuffi cient, outdated and incomplete knowledge of new methods in IC. Th ere was no signifi cant diff erence in students of diff erent years of studies. Students belonging to cardiological SRG and interested in cardiology have greater knowledge in IC.
Introduction: Acute subdural hematoma (aSDH) removal is one of the most commonly performed procedure in neurosurgery. Complications of those surgeries which require reoperation are associated with higher risk of poor treatment outcome. Th erefore we decided to analyse potential factors which might be associated with risk of early reoperation among patients who underwent aSDH surgery. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed 328 patients treated due to aSDH. From their medical records we obtained detailed medical history. Early reoperation was defi ned as reoperation during the same hospital stay. To determine the potential predictors of early reoperation we used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 20 (6.09%) patients required early reoperation. Th ose patients had signifi cantly higher International Normalized Ratio (INR) upon admission (1.96 ± 2.55 vs. 1.26 ± 0.50; p <0.01) and signifi cantly higher Prothrombin Time (PT) upon admission (21.84 ± 27.10 vs. 13.40 ± 3.45; p <0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis aft er adjustment for all possible confounders higher INR (OR: 1.762; 95% CI: 1.017–22.840; p = 0.045) remained independently associated with higher risk of early reoperation among patients with aSDH. Conclusions: Patients with higher INR and PT upon admission are at higher risk of early reoperation. Higher INR is independently associated with higher risk of early reoperation among patients with aSDH.
Th e forearm is a body region of numerous anatomical variations. Due to its favorable anatomy fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle (FDS) is commonly used in tendon transfer surgeries. In this study a unique combination of abnormalities was found in a single forearm: the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis muscle penetrated by the median nerve, one of the fl exor digitorum superfi cialis tendons early division and absence of the palmaris longus muscle. Described variation potentially may lead to the clinical manifestation of the median nerve compression and should be also considered during FDS surgery.
Background: Air pollution is a severe problem in Poland, with Kraków area being among the regions with the worse air quality. Viral croup or pseudocroup is a common childhood disease that may manifest with severe upper respiratory tract obstruction. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between incidence and severity of viral croup symptoms among children living in Kraków area, Poland, and air pollution. Methods: Th e retrospective cross-sectional study included Kraków area residents <18 years of age admitted to the Emergency Department of St. Louis Children Hospital in Kraków, Poland over 2-year period. Daily mean concentrations of air pollutants: particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), nitric oxides (NOx), carbon oxide (CO), sulfur dioxide, ozone, and benzene were retrieved from public database of measurements performed at three local stations. Numbers of cases of viral croup per week were correlated with weekly mean concentrations of air pollutants. Mean air temperature was treated as a cofactor. Results: During the studied period, mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NOx exceeded the allowable levels (yearly means) specifi ed by Polish law regulations. Signifi cant positive correlations of moderate strength were observed between weekly mean concentrations of most air pollutants, especially PM10, PM2.5, CO and benzene, and numbers of cases of viral croup recorded per week, confi rmed in the analysis restricted to non-holiday period and to winter months only. Th e correlations between NOx, CO, benzene and croup prevalence were independent of temperature in non-holiday period. Conclusions: Our results support adverse impact of air pollution on children’s respiratory health.
Background: Unhealthy diet and cooking method used may infl uence the risk of breast cancer (BC), but there is only limited evidence with regard to benign breast disease (BBD). The aim of this study was to assess a relationship between cooking technique, especially fried to boiled meals ratio in the diet, and the risk of BC and BBD in a group of Polish women. Material and methods: A case-control study involving 34 BC cases, 81 BBD cases and 122 healthy controls was conducted between July 2007 and November 2011. All the women were asked about their nutritional habits, especially the way of preparing meat and fi sh dishes. Th en the ratio of fried to boiled meals was calculated. Results: High fried to boiled ratio was associated with increasing risk of BBD, but not BC. Women consuming fried dishes more oft en than boiled dishes had elevated risk of BBD: OR = 3.04 and OR = 3.65 for the second and the third tertile, respectively. Adjustment for the other confounders only slightly altered this relationship. Conclusion: Women who preferred frying as a cooking technique had increased risk of benign breast disease, but not breast cancer. Th ere is a need of more precise investigation to confi rm this association.
Background and objective: Urological diseases represent a signifi cant health issue worldwide. Presented study aimed at assessing current urological knowledge and confi dence in performing urological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures among medical students at Jagiellonian University Medical College in Poland and compare it on diff erent stages of the undergraduate medical education. Material and methods: We designed an anonymous survey distributed among Polish students from 1st to 6th year of medical studies, before and aft er clinical urology course. Questions concerned general urological knowledge, prostate diseases, erectile dysfunction, and self-reported practical urological skills. Results: Overall, 437 respondents participated in the survey. Mean total test score in our study groupwas 50.08%, mean general urological knowledge score was 53.44%, mean prostate diseases knowledge score was 55.43%, mean erectile dysfunction score was 36% and mean practical skills score was 45.83%. Mean total test score increased with consecutive years of studies (R = 0.58; p <0.001). Th e risk of an above average total test score was signifi cantly infl uenced by the urology course (OR = 7.95, 95%CI = 1.81–34.84, p = 0.006) and the year of medical studies (4th–6th vs. 1st–3rd) (OR = 5.16, 95%CI = 3.41–7.81, p <0.001). Practical skills score above average was signifi cantly more frequent in the group aft er the urology course (OR = 6.75, 95%CI = 1.54–29.58, p = 0.011). Conclusions: Results of this study reveal low mean scores obtained by students, even aft er completing the urology course, which implies that curriculum requires further development. Urological knowledge and self-assessed practical skills increased with years of medical education. The urology course improved the score obtained in our survey, both in terms of total test score and practical skills.
Developing the empathic attitude is one of the tasks of medical education as it aff ects the quality of therapeutic contact in the relationship between the doctor and the patient, conditioning the treatment process. According to Davis’s concept, empathy is defi ned as an aff ective-cognitive reaction in the context of the other person’s experience. Aim: Analysis of profi les of empathic sensitivity in students of medicine. Group: Male and female students of the fi ft h year of medicine who agreed to participate in an anonymous study (n = 153; M = 57, F = 96; mean age: 23 years). Tools: Th e Empathetic Sensitivity Scale (EES), which is the Polish tool for Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used. Th e ESS includes three sub-scales: Empathic Care (EC), Personal Distress (PD) and Adopting Perspective (AP). Results: The raw results were converted into sten scores and for sten scores for all three dimensions of empathetic sensitivity no diff erences were found between male and female students. Th ree clusters (1: n = 33%, 2: n = 39%, 3: n = 28%), which diff er in terms of each distinguished indicator, were identifi ed. Conclusions: Th e first cluster characterizes empathetic people, both in the aff ective and cognitive spheres, and those dealing well with unpleasant emotions in situations diffi cult to others. Th e second cluster characterizes participants with the ability to recognize the needs of others and to take into account their perspectives; the third cluster includes participants with a tendency to focus on their own experiences emerging in response to other people’s suff ering but with the ability to understand a situation and show empathic concern for the other person. The most favourable profi le — for a future doctor as well as for his patients — is the fi rst cluster because the doctor, with his empathic sensitivity directed towards the other man, can deal with his own unpleasant emotions.
Both sarcoidosis and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) are multisystem disorders of unknown etiology, which share certain clinical features, making the diff erential diagnosis a real challenge in clinical practice. Several published case reports and case series have posed the question as to whether there is a real association — mimicry between the two diseases or it is just coincidence. We attempt, aft er systematic and comprehensive research of the relevant published literature, to present all those data, clinical or paraclinical, which could be useful in the diagnostic approach and the distinguishment of the two diseases. It is certain that, besides the classic diagnostic methods, emerging is the role of immunology and genetics on this direction, although not established yet.
Objective: The goal of this contribution is to present and familiarize the medical community with the method for the assessment of trace and essentials elements in prostate tissue sections. Materials and methods: X-ray fl uorescence based technique (namely Synchrotron Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE)) is described in terms of methodology, sample preparation and the evaluation of the recorded results (spectral data sets). Materials for the samples were collected from the patients underwent radical prostatectomy due to Adenocarcinoma prostatae. Specimens were freeze-dried, cut by microtome (to the thickness of 15 μm), one slice was placed on Mylar foil (for SRIXE measurements) and adjacent one on microscopic glass (for histopathological assessment). Results: Results presented here show the usability of SRIXE method for the evaluation of concentration of trace and essential elements in prostate tissue sections with the spatial resolution better than 15 microns. Discussion: Histopathological analysis of samples, which is only focused on morphological features, is unable to reveal information about changes in biochemical signature of tissues aff ected by the illness. SRIXE is a powerful and promising technique to analyse even very low concentrations of selected elements at the cellular level without any labelling or separating procedures. Obtained results may be correlated with classic histopathological assessment allowing for drawing conclusions on the changes in certain elements concentrations with the progression of disease. Moreover, mentioned in this work analysis, can be performed for any type of biological tissues.