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Abstract

Background: Recoarctation (reCoA) of the aorta is a common complication after the Norwood procedure. Untreated, it can lead to failure of the systemic ventricle and death. The main goal of the study is to defi ne risk factors of reCoA after the Norwood procedure in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the pre-, intra- and postoperative data of 96 successive patients who underwent the Norwood procedure between 2007 and 2011. In case of reCoA balloon angioplasty was performed. We analyzed and compared the data of the patients with reCoA and without reCoA using the StatSoft STATISTICA™ 10 soft ware. Results: ReCoA was noted in 23 patients (33.3%). Th is complication was diagnosed 95.1 days (49–156 days) on the average aft er the Norwood procedure. Balloon angioplasty successfully allowed for decreasing the mean gradient across the site of the narrowing from the average 27.5 mmHg to the average 9.7 mmHg (p = 0.008) and enlarged the neo-isthmus by the average of 2 mm (p <0.05). Th e risks factors seemed to be the diameter of the ascending aorta OR = 7.82 (p = 0.001), atresia of the mitral valve OR = 7.00 (p = 0.003) and atresia of the aortic valve — OR = 6.22 (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Balloon angioplasty seems to be an eff ective intervention in case of reCoA. A low diameter of the native ascending aorta (≤3mm) and the presence of atresia of the mitral and/or aortic valve should intensify the vigilance of a cardiologist in the search for signs of reCoA of the aorta.
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Abstract

Introduction: The prolongation of the life of men results in the growing number of people suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In 2010, BPH concerned more than 200 million men in the whole world, which at that time made up 6% of the population of men at large. Currently, the population of men in the world amounts about three billion six hundred million. The modern surgical treatment of BPH consists of minimally invasive techniques, including laser systems. Aim: Evaluation of the eff ectiveness of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) on the basis of subjective parameters assessed by patients using IPSS and QoL questionnaires as well as objective parameters obtained from results of urodynamic tests. Material and Methods: Between 2012 and 2015, 120 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were included in the study and underwent PVP. Finally, 77 patients were included in the study. In all patients, IPSS and QoL sheets were carried out 1, 6 and 12 months, and urodynamic tests 12 months after the surgical treatment. Results: The statistically signifi cant change in the value of each parameter assessed: decrease in the IPSS, QoL, PVR, Pmax, Pop, the degree of obstruction according to Schäfer and ICS nomogram, and an increase in the values of Qmax and Qave. Conclusions: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate is an eff ective method of therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
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Abstract

Background: Anorexia nervosa is a widely prevalent eating disorder that often leads to life-threatening complications. Since it mostly concerns females, many authors have focused on studying the reproductive system in anorexic women. Recently discovered telocytes may give a new insight into the pathophysiology of gynecological complications in these patients. Material and Methods: We adopted an animal model of anorexia nervosa induced by voluntary physical activity. Sixteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and activity-based anorexia. When the weight loss of activity-based anorexia (ABA) rats reached 25% animals were euthanized. Size and weight measurements as well as histopathological analysis of the reproductive organs were performed. Additionally, we used immunohistochemical staining for detection of telocytes. Results: Telocytes were identified in uteri of anorectic rats but no diff erences were observed when compared to the control group. Nevertheless, in the ABA group the weight of the uteri and the number of follicles in the ovaries decreased significantly. Conclusions: Our rat model of anorexia nervosa mimics the effects of this eating disorder that occur in the female reproductive system since we reported ovarian dysfunction and uterine involution in the experimental animals. It supports its potential role in the further studies of anorexia pathophysiology and treatment possibilities.
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Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to defi ne the total number of septa and the total number of antra in the sphenoid sinuses (created as a result of the presence of additional septa), as well as the relation between the number of the septa and their location in the adult population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of the computed tomography (CT) scans of the paranasal sinuses of 296 patients (147 females and 149 males), who did not present any pathology in the sphenoid sinuses. The CT scans of the paranasal sinuses were done with the spiral CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) by using a standard procedure, in the option Siemens CARE Dose 4D, without using any contrast medium. After obtaining the transverse planes, the frontal and sagittal planes were created using secondary reconstruction tool (multiplans reconstruction — MPR). Results: The analysis of the obtained images in the transverse plane and secondary CT reconstructions has shown the presence of only one sphenoid septum (main septum — MS) in 21.96% of the patients, which divided the sphenoid sinus into two sphenoid antra. In 78.04% of the patients, there were more than one sphenoid septa present in the posterior part of the sphenoid sinuses, hence there were additional septa (AS) present. One AS was present in 22.97% of the patients. The most common variant — two AS — was found in 32.09% of the cases. The presence of more than two AS was found in the following number of patients: three AS in 9.8%, four AS in 7.09%, five AS in 1.69%, six AS in 3.04% and seven AS in 1.01%. Th e rarest variant was the presence of more than seven AS: eight AS in 0.34% and nine AS also in 0.34%. Th ere were no sphenoid sinuses that would have more than nine AS in the researched material. Conclusions: Due to the high incidence of the anatomical variants of the paranasal sinuses, a CT scan is recommended in all patients before a planned surgery in order to avoid the potential complications that might arise as a result of the complicated structure of the paranasal sinuses.
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Abstract

A personal data referring to the scaphoid skull housed in the Department of Anatomy of the Jagiellonian University, Medical College was established thanks to reviewing 19th century literature performed by Dr. Sofi caru. We received information that the skull had belonged to an adult man who was a carpenter, born at Cracow. Th e original anthropometrical study of this skull was performed by prof. Kopernicki 19th century.
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Abstract

Background: The older population is very heterogeneous with regard to the co-morbidity and the physical reserve. This can result in unacceptably high postoperative complications rates. Th erefore, the aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the outcomes of older patients treated for pancreatic cancer, including the usage of minimal invasive techniques. Methodology: A review of the literature was carried out including studies on pancreatic cancer in older patients published between 2011 and 2016. Results: Seventeen retrospective studies were included. The total number of patients was 9981 with the age range of 65 years and more. Studies on surgical treatment alone (1.4%), neoadjuvant/adjuvant treatment with or without surgery (89.4%) and palliative therapy (9.2%) were assessed separately. Appropriate comparison was diffi cult due to the retrospective character and heterogeneity of the study population. Mortality was low, yet there was a great diff erence in morbidity ranging from some percent to even 100% of the study population. Long-term results were poor. Conclusions: The functional status, not the chronological age alone, is the factor limiting therapeutic options in older patients with pancreatic cancer.
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Abstract

Meckel’s diverticulum represents a remnant of the proximal end of the omphalomesenteric duct, which constitutes a connection between the middle intestine and the vitelline vesicle. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract and is found in approximately 0.3–2% of the general population. Complications such as hemorrhage, bowel obstruction, infl ammation, perforation, intussusception, volvulus and malignant transformation develop in only 4–4.8% of all patients, with most cases presenting in childhood, while relative risk decreases during life. The aim of the present study is to present our experience in managing a 15-year old male patient with Meckel’s diverticulum covered perforation. It was a case of disguised perforation of the Meckel’s diverticulum, with development of adhesions to the anterior surface of the right third of the transverse colon, which was successfully treated on the basis of emergency. Diagnosis was made intraoperatively and was documented by histological examination of the excised diverticulum.
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Abstract

Introduction: The history of using performance-enhancing substances (PES) is long and it goes back to ancient times. At present, PES are employed at all levels of sport competition, starting from Olympic level contestants to individuals recreationally involved in various sports disciplines. Purpose: The objective of the study was examining the views on doping in sports in a group of physicians, together with evaluating the frequency of their contacts with this phenomenon, in their professional activities. Methods: The investigation was carried out using a validated questionnaire developed by the authors. Questionnaire included 34 questions divided into 6 sections. In total, 257 individuals participated in the study. The percentage of answers was 75.81%. Results: Among the responders, 96.50% believed that using PES by sports competitors represented unethical behavior. 42% participants declared that they met doping problem during their professional career. Almost one-third of the physicians (28.79%) declared that during their work, they consulted patient suffering from adverse side eff ects resulting from using PES. Conclusions: In Poland, physicians regard using PES as unethical behavior. They believe that a health care system professional should participate in counteracting doping in sports. Physicians — regardless of their specialty — are also exposed to PES-related problems in their professional work. In view of the above facts and the consistently increasing popularity of PES, extending the knowledge in this field among physicians seems to be of importance to allow for their offering better medical services to their patients.
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Abstract

Inguinal hernia repairs are one of the most common procedures performed in general surgical departments. Approximately 20 million hernia repairs are performed annually all over the world. According to the EHS guidelines, the recommended treatment methods of the inguinal hernia are tension–free techniques: the Lichtenstein open hernia repair and the laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) and totally extraperitoneal (TEP) methods. The TEP hernia repair, first performed by Duluq in 1992, is one of the three current leading techniques in the inguinal hernia repair. The most important advantage of this technique is minimal invasive access without the need to open the peritoneum, which carries a lower risk of abdominal organs injury. Additionally, the TEP method facilitates shorter recovery time, less postoperative pain and an earlier discharge form hospital. The aim of the article is to present the TEP method by comparing it with the other inguinal hernia repair techniques, on the basis of the available literature.
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Abstract

Introduction: Uterine leiomyoma is the most widespread benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age. There are still gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesiss. Telocytes are unique cells described in greater than 50 different locations inside the human body. The functional relationship of cells could clarify the pathogenesis of leiomyomata. In the current study, we focused on the identification of telocytes in all regions of the human uterus to explain their involvement in leiomyoma development. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from a healthy and myomatous uterus were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology and collagen deposits. Results: Telocytes were detected in the cervix, corpus of the uterus and leiomyoma. The density of telocytes in fibroid foci was reduced compared with normal myometrium. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the existence of telocytes in all parts of the human body affected and unaff ected by leiomyoma of the uterus. In addition, telocytes were also present in leiomyoma foci. Our results suggest that the reduced density of telocytes is important for the pathomechanisms of myometrial growth, demonstrating its value as a main component of the myomatous architecture.
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Abstract

For over twenty years psychologists have been using information and communication technology to design solutions aimed at improving mental health and quality of life of their clients or patients. One of those solutions are internet interventions. Although these interventions are commonly used in other countries, knowledge about them in Poland is limited. The aim of the article is to introduce to the topic of psychological internet interventions by describing the basic functionalities of internet interventions, the context of their use, their classification, areas where they can be applied and challenges related to their future development and wider implementation.
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Abstract

The object of our deliberations is structuralism in literary studies, whose beginnings in Poland can be traced back to the thirties of the 20th century. It was developing at two centres at the time: at the Stefan Batory University in Vilnius, around Professor Manfred Kridl, and at the University of Warsaw. Structuralism was reborn in Poland in the sixties and it impacted all of literary studies; its main centres were: the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Focusing on the analysis of literary systems, it combined them with theory of text and interpretation of individual works, emphasizing their broadly understood linguistic, discursive and rhetorical properties. In the culmination stage of its advancement, it tackled the fundamental problems of our discipline, including those that were only starting to emerge, such as reception of literary works as intended by its structural properties, or intertextuality. Structuralism had (and still has) a strong impact on the entirety of literary studies in Poland. It also became a sphere of reference for researchers of the younger generation, who prefer newer methodological tendencies.
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Abstract

In Poland the position of a leader of political party Law and Justice has become the most important position in the country. His will has the power of law. The boundary between his will and the will of a state has blurred. The leader holds unlimited power, although he does not hold any public position. He is beyond legislative, executive and judiciary. The constitutional rule of control, complementing and hindering was replaced by charismatic power of the leader of Law and Justice. The power in Poland is held by one man. The „new law order” (Constitutional Court, National Council of the Judiciary of Poland, common courts, Supreme Court, prosecutors office) serves political purposes of the leader of Law and Justice. That is the reason for judges exchange in Poland. Lawlessness has become law. Law has been turned into a political instrument and it was done in the most vulgar way. Law serves Law and Justice’s political purpose, with disregard and disrespect to constitutional values. The system of constitutional values is not relevant for Law and Justice in the process of establishing law. A system based on autocracy is created. The main legislative competence is held by the leader of Law and Justice. Systematically, with absolute consistency, a totalitarian regime is built, where legislative and executive is under control of one man, who himself remains out of constitutional control and has no constitutional responsibility.
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Abstract

On 7 April 1968 the Club of Rome was established. In 1972 D.H. Meadows, D.L. Meadows, J. Randers and W.W. Behrens published The Limits to Growth as the first report to the Club of Rome – describing various scenarios for world development to 2100. Since that time the Club of Rome has developed in the world wide apolitical movement.
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Abstract

The issue in the title is known and is being analyzed for a long time, however its complexity makes the setting of both – the future of it and contemporary form – emerge a lot of questions marks. I do not intend to leave most of them aside. I do make an attempt however to present its complexity and as well the importance in the reflextion upon life and activity of scholars. In these remarks I do recall several ways of presenting it and do make an attempt to stress out those of research possibilities which may lead to interesting outcomes. In the end part of the remakrs I do present some of them. I treat this step as an invitation to further discussion on the sensibility and anger of scholars.
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Nauka | 2018 | No 3 | 107–124

Abstract

The article presents relationship between history and management. Methodological inspirations between these disciplines have been shown and also the achievements carried out within the history of business and organizational theory have been described. The author has characterized the “historical turn” in organizational researches in the 1990s of XX century. In the subsequent part of the article, three methodological approaches have been characterized, namely: narrative research and storytelling, business history, and historical perspective in organizational research. The achievements of Polish researchers in the distinguished areas of research were taken into account. At the end, barriers to greater interest of using the historical perspective in the research of organizations, conducted by Polish researchers, have been presented. They are as follows: small share of historical knowledge in the education of management adepts, domination of a historical paradigms in organization and management research, the lack of continuity in the development of Polish organizations and scientific reflection on organizations and management in the 20th century and low historical awareness of Polish entrepreneurs and managers.
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Abstract

The article deals with issues concerning the pedagogical aims of studying traditional humanities in present realities of Polish society, which at the end of the 20th century overthrew communism. The new political and civilization conditions have caused major social changes that require a new approach to the humanities. Meanwhile, in Poland there is still a traditional and conservative cult of national identity and heritage, which prevents the development of an open society based on cultural tolerance and understanding of the differences that separate us from the West and other cultures. Humanities should be an academic tool for shaping an individual and creative personality and not for preserving national cultural and historical mythology. Such social pedagogy leads to a closed society oriented towards the past and not towards modernity. An educational policy that promotes this attitude treats cultural heritage as a tool of political control over society. In our times, humanities consist in discovering and interpreting the world around us and in forming an independent thinking. Literature, philosophy and other liberal arts cannot be just a sterile studying of a dead tradition.
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Nauka | 2018 | No 3 | 93–105

Abstract

Ludwik Bohdan Grzeniewski (1930–2008) was Polish essayist, poet, critic and novelist. He was born and died in Warsaw, where he spent all his life. Well known as varsavianist, he was also master of literary miniature. It is not a literary genre in the strict sense. “Literary miniature”, coherent artistic statement, as short as possible, combines elements of poem, essay, short narrative and others. Grzeniewski always highly valued precision, he preferred condensed form of expression. I therefore think, that the books of this writer (Igły w stogu siana, “Drobiazgów duch, wspaniały i powietrzny…”, Taniec z mufką and others) deserve attention.
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Abstract

The academic environment of Wrocław emerged and developed in particularly difficult conditions of the post WWII era. Thanks to continuation of the tradition, experience and contributions of leading scientists from the former Jan Kazimier University of Lwów, it quickly achieved an important, internationally recognized position in particular in mathematics and chemistry. Two different sociological concepts of relations within the scientific community have developed simultaneously: (1) partnership between leaders and research team members, (2) hierarchical structure based on authority of a leader. History proved that both may be effective. Wrocław became a modern center of research management comparable to leading western universities. The general approach based on relationship „between master and a follower” has been replaced by the more effective relatioship „between a school and a follower”. Similarly to the Lwów tradition the Wrocław Scientific Society has played an integrative role in relations among scientists of different disciplines.
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Nauka | 2018 | No 3 | 155–173

Abstract

The production of domestic protein for feed in Poland is insufficient. The import of feed raw materials, especially soybean, which is genetically modified (GM) is necessity. In 2016, Poland imported about 2 million tonnes of GM soybean. In Poland was introduced a ban for using and production of GM feed (Law – animal feed from 2006). This ban has already been suspended few times, mainly due to the fact, that the complete replacement of imported GM soybean meal with other components was impossible. The Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development appointed “Team for alternative sources of protein”, responsible for finding solutions that will impact on reducing imports and will increase the share of domestic sources of protein in animal feed. To achieve this aim research are needed to indicate plants and their possibilities for using. The aim of the article is to analyse selected feed components such as: soybean and rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and oilcakes. This analysis concerns the area of cultivation of soybean, rapeseed and sunflower, purchase costs of meals and oilcakes, properties of these components and foreign trade in Poland.
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Nauka | 2018 | No 3 | 125–142

Abstract

The University Reform of 1918 was a renewal movement for universities, aimed at their democratization and modernization, initiated by student activities at the National University of Cordoba. Student movements took on a continental dimension and led to many changes in Latin American universities, especially in the field of autonomy and representation of students in university bodies. The introduction of university autonomy has had a profound impact not only on the functioning of the higher education system in Latin America, but also on other areas of social and political life in the region in the following decades. The article presents the Cordoba University Reform from a historical perspective and attempts to evaluate achievements in the implementation of its ideas in the today’s system of higher education in Latin America.
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