The author of the article makes an attempt to show borrowings from the perspective of their penetration into Polish and presents the most common and less frequent words. Special attention is paid to the usage and context of separate words in pairs (native word ~ borrowed word) in two idiolects that demonstrate the preservation of the Polish language tradition and show a new wave of loanwords as well. The author describes some word-formative peculiarities of verbs in the dialectal Polish language of Gródek Podolski. This text can be a supplement to the previous papers concerning borrowed vocabulary and morphological derivation in Polish dialects.
An activist of two big traditions. Skaryna and Ukraine Scholarly research of Francysk Skaryna legacy has been initiated by J.V. Bacmejster in 1776 and V.S. Sopikow in 1813. Further research conducted in the XX century by Alexander Bilecki, Pavel Popov, Yaroslav Isayevich, U. Anichenko and contemporary studies of Halyna Kovalchuk, Alexandr Nauvov, Mariola Walczak-Mikolajczak and others demonstrate how important were Skaryna’s activities on the border of two big traditions. In this context it’s worth to focus on a topic “Skaryna and Ukraine” in all its depth: biographical, publishing, polygraphic, academic, bibliographical. Ukrainian episode in Skaryna’s life and his birth town of Polotsk is related to the cult of Saint Euphrosyne of Polotsk who established the fi rst female monastery and is considered a patron of female monasticism of Rus. Polygraphic context of Skaryna’s activities is tied to Western Europe. Upon the receipt of a doctorate in medicine at the University of Padua he visited Venice – one of the most prominent centers of printing and publishing including Slavic, Greek and Hebrew texts where he also mastered modern printing techniques. In Prague Skaryna used two color printing technique to publish The Song of Songs and print the title page of Biblia Ruska. In Vilnius two color printing technique has been applied to print fi ve chapters of the Bible and just one title page of Psalter.
The paper attempts to approach some peculiarities of the two branches of the early Slavs (Sclaveni and Antes), as the Byzantine sources of the sixth and early seventh centuries present them as being similar. Within this context the following are examined: a) the origin and ethnic identity of the Sclaveni and the Antes, taking into account certain historiographical models on the early Slavs, as well as the controversial issue of the ethnic identity of the Antes (Slavic or Iranian) and the etymology of their name; b) the material culture: under consideration are the Prague and Penkovka cultures, identifi ed with the Sclaveni and the Antes respectively, their common elements and peculiarities, their mutual infl uences as well as infl uences from other cultures; c) the political and social organization: the internal structures of the Sclaveni and the Antes, taking into account the testimony of Jordanes, Procopius and Maurice, the references in other sources to the titles of chieftains, or a kind of genealogy into the early Slavic society, as well as the treaty of Byzantium with the tribal union of the Antes are under scrutiny. The paper draws the conclusion that the Sclaveni and the Antes shared similarities, but actually were not one and the same at all, as it appears in the Byzantine sources. Furthermore, the peculiarities that appear the political-social organization and the material culture of the Antes, due to their historical and cultural evolution, are not of a degree that could dispute their Slavic ethnic and cultural identity.
The article discusses the book Roizman. The Ural Robin Hood by Valery Panyushkin (2014). The author of the article points out that the novel, which belongs to a non-fiction literature, contains typical features of a reportage (i.e. the category of a participant and the category of a witness). This book also seems to be taking qualities of a narrative prose. The writer uses virtual reported speech form or presents reality from the perspective of his characters’ awareness. Such a narrative method does not lead Panyushkin to blur the boundary between referentiality and fi ctionality in his book but inclines cognitive skepticism. Neither does it neglect the “truth” of facts, nor does it interpret them, but it indicates various ways of interpreting certain events or phenomena.
“Transcendental function” is one of the central category in Carl Gustav Jung’s Analytical Psychology. The theoretical aspects of its realization in the context of literary work are the researches object in this article. Fundament of analyze is Nikolai Gogol’s outstanding story The Overcoat.
The history of “Études de théologie, de philosophie et d’histoire” is connected with the Work of Saints Cyril and Methodius (L’OEuvre des Saints Cyrille et Méthode), which was founded in 1855. The purpose of the Work was prayer as well as refl ection and discussion on the union of the Catholic and Orthodox Church. The founder of the Work, Ivan Gagarin, once Russian Orthodox and from 1842 a Catholic in France, gathered for this purpose a vast library in order to document the history of ecumenism and the ecclesiastical history of the Slavic countries. With time, the Slavonic Library became one of the most abundant book collections on these subjects in Western Europe. Gagarin believed that the West knew too little about the Orthodox Russia, which was an impediment to the union of the Churches. To bring his motherland closer to Western Catholics and to present problems to be faced by those who strove for the unity of the Christian East and West, Gagarin decided to start to publish a magazine “Études de théologie, de philosophie et d’histoire”, for which he needed approval of the superiors of the Jesuit Order. Due to Gagarin’s prolonged negotiations with his superiors, the magazine did not start to be published until 1857. This paper deals with the history of “Études de théologie, de philosophie et d’histoire”.
The subject of the article are lit erary and non-literary allusions in the poem by G. Derzhaw in "To Tsarevich Khlor" entitled. They referred to the political and social events that took place during his lifetime. Some o f the allusions he explained in the Commentaries he wrote to his poems, others explain ed in an ambiguous way.
Kazimierz Jaworski contributed to a great extent to popularising Yevhen Malaniuk’s poetry in the interwar period. Most of Jaworski’s translations of Malaniuk’s poems into Polish were published in the years 1933–1937 in the magazine Kamena in Chełm. The poet from Lublin undertook to translate less popular poems, unknown to Polish readers. He opted not to work with the Ukrainian poet’s patriotic works, familiar to Polish literary circles, and chose poems of intimate and existential nature instead. From the two collections which were known in Poland, Earth And Iron (1930) and The Earthly Madonna (1934), he selected poems which in a special way correlate with his own lyrical works from the To a Red And White Mistress (1924) collection. What deserves special attention among Kazimierz Jaworski’s translating techniques is his exceptional diligence in choosing suitable Polish semantic equivalents and in rendering an appropriate rhythm of poems. Most of his translations can be described as adequate. They are not absolute, but they convey the originality of a given work through preserving the form and contents of the translated poem in the most faithful way possible. Jaworski’s translations show his inclination to poetise and dynamise the text. The translator readily uses his own metaphors and expands phrases with emotionally charged elements. Kazimierz Andrzej Jaworski was also a tireless propagator of information concerning the most recent translations of Yevhen Malaniuk’s poetry as well as the publishing activities of one of the most valued representatives of the Ukrainian immigration in Poland.
The authors analyse around 300 names with ideological components drawn out from a list of around 5,000 colonies, villages, hamlets, rural settlements and khutors located in the USSR, in which Germans lived in the 1920s and 30s. These oekonyms-sovieticisms can be classifi ed into three groups: 1) those derived from the names of individuals who had achieved renown (e.g. Ленинфельд, Подарок Ильича, Роза Люксембург, Марксфельд, Либкнехтдорф, Тельман, Клара Цеткин, Кировсфельд, Калининталь), 2) those commemorating phenomena and events linked with the Revolution and the era of Soviet rule (e.g. Красная Германия, Ротвейде, Ротер Штерн, Краснофельд, Октоберберг), 3) those referring to areas of production (e.g. Счастливый Труд, Культурный пахарь, Арбейтслибе).
The article is devoted to the analysis of the lyrical poetry of Evdokiya Rostopchina, who was considered in the late 1830s – early 1840s as one of the most talented Russian poets. The main object of investigation is her strategy of self-representation. It is shown how Rostopchina builds her individual myth: the poetess treats herself as the heiress, the successor to Pushkin and Lermontov; she creates this myth, relying on the facts of her biography. She creates her own version of the romantic myth about the poet, varying the motives of the lyrics of these authors, as well as of Baratynsky’s poems. In the 1850s, trying to resist the realistic tendencies of the new era, she presents herself as the guardian of a high literary tradition and enters into a conscious confl ict with time, making literary “archaism” her own principle. If earlier she cultivated elegiac poetics, now she turns to satire.
The article portrays the motif of dream and its symbolic meanings in Vladimir Nabokov’s short story Terror, what has not been the subject of detailed research so far. It has been determined that the experience of dream in the analysed story denotes the protagonist’s attempt to escape from the surrounding world and a shift into the sphere of the unconscious (mysterious anaesthesia). Thus the topos of dream/dream fantasy in Terror implies the existence of a hero in a particular kind of chronotope, and is connected with the semantics of the passage – from demonic chaos and metaphysical terror to restoration of cosmic (microcosmic) order and to “becoming oneself” (Ricoeur). Moreover, dream in Nabokov’s text is intrinsically linked with the problem of compatibility/ incompatibility of the two worlds: the real and the oneiric one, existing in reality and reflected in a mirror, and also with the motif of a doppelganger which bears references to Dostoyevsky’s writings. Also, an oneiric image of a laughing woman is analysed in detail in the article. It has been proven that laugter (giggle) of the story’s heroine unveils ambivalent and demonic dimension of femininity and is a reference to Pushkin’s The Queen of Spades.