Background and Aim: Patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) associated with hemodynamic instability, i.e. high-risk APE (HR-APE), are at risk for early mortality and require urgent reperfusion therapy with thrombolysis or embolectomy. However, a considerable proportion of HR-APE subjects is not reperfused but only anticoagulated due to high bleeding risk. The aim of the present study was to assess the management of HR-APE in a single large-volume referral center. Methods: A single-center retrospective study of 32 HR-APE subjects identified among 823 consecutive patients hospitalized for symptomatic APE. Results: Out of 32 subjects with HR-APE (19 women, age 69 ± 19 years), 20 patients were unstable at admission and 12 subsequently deteriorated despite on-going anticoagulation. Thrombolysis was applied in 20 (62.5%) of HR-APE subjects, limited mainly by classical contraindications in the remainder. Percutaneous pulmonary embolectomy was performed in 4 patients. In-hospital PE-related mortality tended to be higher, albeit insignifi cantly, in the patients who developed hemodynamic collapse during the hospital course compared to those unstable at admission (67% vs. 40%, p = 0.14). Also, survival was slightly better in 22 patients treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous embolectomy in comparison to 10 subjects who received only anticoagulation (54% vs. 40%, p = 0.2). Major non-fatal bleedings occurred in 7 of 20 patients receiving thrombolysis (35%) and in 2 (17%) of the remaining non-thrombolysed 12 HR-APE subjects. Conclusions: Hemodynamically instability, corresponding to the definition of HR-APE, affects about 4% of patients with APE, developing during the hospital course in approximately one-third of HR-APE subjects. As almost 40% of patients with HR-APE do not receive thrombolytic therapy for fear of bleeding, urgent percutaneous catheter-assisted embolectomy may increase the percentage of patients with HR-APE undergoing reperfusion therapy. Further studies are warranted for a proper identification of initially stable intermediate-risk APE subjects at risk of hemodynamic collapse despite appropriate anticoagulation.
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease that rarely undergoes malignant transformation. Th ere are two types of disease: localized (nodular tenosynovitis) and diff used (pigmented villonodular synovitis/tenosynovitis) with intra- or extra-articular locations. Th e second one is limited to synovium of the burse (PVNB) or tendon sheath (PVNTS). Th e intraarticular lesions are usually located in the knee, hip, ankle and elbow joints. Histologically, PVNS is a tenosynovial giant cell tumor, characterized by proliferation of two types of mononuclear cells — predominantly small, histiocyte-like cells and larger cells with dense cytoplasm, reniform or lobulated nucleus, with accompanying multinucleated giant cells and macrophages overloaded with hemosiderin that give typical image on MRI — currently selected as a gold standard for its diagnosis. Th e classic X-ray and CT are non-specifi c but similar to ultrasound should be used to evaluate disease progression and treatment response if radiotherapeutic and pharmacological methods were selected for treatment. An open arthroscopic surgery could also be applied in selected cases.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the fi nal stage in several heart diseases. The diagnosis of CHF in older patients is a challenge. Preserved left ventricular systolic function is a characteristic type of CHF in seniors. The purpose of the study was to characterize elderly patients with CHF and to highlight specific features of the conditions in seniors. The most common etiology of HF in this group of patients is hypertension and coronary heart disease. In seniors atypical presentations of chronic heart failure is much more common than in younger patients. Malnutrition, limitations of exercise and sedentary lifestyles or comorbid diseases have an influence on asymptomatic, early stage of HF. Th ere are better outcomes of treatment in obese individuals. It is called the obesity paradox. Open communication with a patient and his/her family may improve their response to therapy. When heart failure becomes an incurable disease and aggressive treatment is ineffective, palliative care should be considered in end-of-life heart failure patients. The goal of treatment in the remaining moments of life last moments of life should be maximizing the patient’s comfort.
Hypertension constitutes one of the most common diseases leading patients to the Outpatient Departments. Idiopathic hypertension is the prevailing type, but on the other hand, the possible presence of clinical entities responsible for the development of secondary hypertension should never be underestimated. We retrospectively studied 447 subjects aged between 20 and 84 years old and diagnosed with hypertension, who were thoroughly evaluated for secondary hypertension. Our analysis demonstrated that 35 out of the 447 subjects were fi nally diagnosed with secondary hypertension, representing a relative frequency of 7.8%. Most common causes of secondary hypertension identifi ed in our study group were: glucocorticoid intake (n = 14), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (n = 6), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 2) and preeclamspia (n = 2). Several other causes are also reported. Our study, conducted in a single center in Northern Greece, confi rms previous reports concerning the prevalence of secondary hypertension among Greek patients, shedding light on potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. In conclusion, a high proportion of hypertensive individuals still feature have an underlying cause, thus, diagnostic work-up should be thorough and exhaustive, in order the correct diagnosis to be made and the targeted treatment to be initiated.
Changes in the size and the age structure of a population have a great impact on an economy, especially on national savings and capital flows. Poland’s population, although still relatively young when compared to other developed countries, is expected to experience accelerated ageing and decline in forthcoming decades. In this paper, we assess the effects of these processes for Polish economy. Using an open-economy OLG model with demographic shocks and a variable retirement age, we simulate dynamics of real interest rates, main macro aggregates as well as net foreign assets to GDP. We show that rapid ageing will reduce the interest rate gap between Poland and the developed countries by 1.3-2 p.p. We also document a strong positive relationship between interest rates and the retirement age and find that the decline in the interest rate in Poland is primarily driven by the surviving probability shock
The article presents two dimensions of the relationship between cinema and Polish independence. The first part was devoted to the situation of Polish cinema after 1918. I describe the film market, the political situation, relationship between the state and cinematography, films that were then created and their impact on national identity. Then I focus on films in which independence has become a movie theme. I divide them into three periods: until 1939, the People's Republic of Poland and after 1989. I draw attention to their political and historical contexts, functions and film form, and I discuss the meaning and interpretation of each films.
On November 2, 2018, an outstanding Polish medievalist Jerzy Lesław Wyrozumski died in Kraków; he was born on March 7, 1930 in Trembowla (now Ukraine). He graduated in 1955 with a degree in history at the Jagiellonian University. He wrote his master's thesis and doctoral dissertation under the supervision of Roman Grodecki. In 1981 he received the title of professor; he was dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and History in the years 1981–1987, and from 1987 to 1990 he was the prorector of the Jagiellonian University. He published over 600 scholarly books, articles and reviews.
According to the psycho-lexical approach in the taxonomy of individual differences, those interpersonal differences, which are the most important for social functioning of individual, have been encoded into natural languages. Therefore by analyzing the lexicons of interpersonal differences, it is possible to identify structures of their descriptions. Application of the psycho-lexical approach in the field of psychology of individual differences lead to obtaining the relatively high consistency regarding scientific taxonomy of personality traits. Also models developed on this basis meet the most important criteria of goodness of the psychological structural models. As a result, the accumulation of knowledge about person’s psychological functioning have been intensified. The aim of the article is to present the specificity of lexical studies and their taxonomical potential for social sciences, as well as key threats and limitations, based on experience of previous psycho-lexical research.
The new evaluation rules proposed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education in July 2018 are set to cure some of the ailments of the existing system, notably the “punktoza” phenomenon (i.e. publishing for volume, not scientific quality). However, it should be pointed out that the method of fixing old “bugs” might in fact create some new ones. In this article I discuss three elements of the proposed regulations, namely: the principle of “inheritance of prestige”, treatment of chapters in edited volumes, and possible variants of ministerial registry of academic publishers. To address those issues empirically I use an existing dataset covering citation of books in 2009–2013 (Torres-Salinas et al. 2014). While the new evaluation rules apply relatively high value to chapters in edited volumes, they in fact have disproportionately low scientific impact. What is more, the correlation between citation of books and chapters in edited volumes is very low, casting doubt on the assumed “inheritance of publishers' prestige”. Finally, there seems to be a high risk that the registry of publishers will not reproduce the exponential distribution observed in the actual structure of scientific impact (and apparently sought by the new system), thereby jeopardizing validity of such evaluation.
Polish Literary Bibliography shows the documentation material in an annual order records of the texts of Polish authors, also translated into foreign languages and foreign authors translated into Polish. It notes works in the theory of literature and also history of literature, literary life, literary criticism, theater and film. Is a complete theatrical and film bibliography, presents records of radio plays and television theater. In the years 1954–2000 it appeared in annual cycles, including in 38 volumes material from the years 1944/1945–1988. To the volume for 1985, it was subjected to constant censor interventions. Since 1989, it exists as an online database. The creator of PLB was professor Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński, who has also established in 1948 Department of Current Bibliography in which the bibliography is being developed.
This article proposes a model describing the nature of associative processes as diagnostic cues for formulating attitudes and judgments. The assumption of the model is that attitudes, judgments and behaviours are based on how people selectively activate, interpret and integrate previously associated signals (selectively limiting the excess of information from both the senses and from our immediate environment). The model specifies which factors hinder or facilitate the formulation of associations between diagnostic signals and how it translates into attitudes, judgments and behaviours. To test the predictions derived from this model, we first showed that linguistic cues of diminutives can indicate physical properties – they were associated with the belief that the described objects were smaller but also worse or less valuable. The second line of research dealt with embodied moral judgments – we demonstrated that the usage of a hand over heart gesture led to more honest behaviour, an increase in judgments of honesty but also reduced tendency to lie for one's own profit. Our findings also suggest that using “standing at attention” body manipulation increased participants' submissiveness to the experimenter and their obedience to norms. This pattern of results suggests that the described model integrates perspectives of embodied cognition and social cognition, documenting the cognitive mechanism needed to formulate and adjust attitudes and judgments.
The objective of the study was to create a printable 3D model of the sellar region of the sphenoid bone for demonstrating anatomical variant of the osseous bridging between anterior and posterior clinoid processes. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the middle cranial fossa along with 3D printed model, allow for accurate depicting position of the interclinoid bridge with reference to other basicranial structures.
Objective: The aim of this study was to verify if the exposure to the pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) infl uenced the release of proinfl ammatory cytokines from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) of normal and overweight rats of various age and sex. Moreover, we compared body temperatures of normal-weight and overweight rats. Methods: ADSCs of Wistar rats were isolated from the subcutaneous area in females and paratesticular region in males, cultured and exposed to PEMF (7 Hz, 30 mT). Concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were determined in rat sera and supernatant from ADSCs cultures exposed and non-exposed to PEMF. Body temperature (BT) was measured twice a week, using an infrared and rectal thermometer. Results: Irrespective of age and sex, animals maintained on low-fat (LF) diet had higher BT than those grown on high-fat (HF) diet. Exposure to PEMF reduced the release of TNF-α and enhanced the production of IL-6 in ADSCs cultures from female pups maintained on LF diet. In contrast, a decrease in IL-6 level was observed in PEMF-exposed ADSCs cultures from female pups grown on HF diet. A similar phenomenon, i.e. a post-exposure increase in IL-6 level was also observed in male pups fed with the LF diet. In the case of ADSCs cultures from adult rats maintained on an HF diet, either males or females, PEMF exposure contributed to a dramatic increase in TNF-α production. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PEMF exposure may affect the production of proinflammatory cytokines in ADSCs cultures. The intergroup diff erences in BT may result from the presence of an underlying inflammation in obese rats.
Introduction: Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in the European Union. The European Trauma Course (ETC) is a training course that focuses on administering aid to trauma patients in a Hospital’s Emergency Department by creating an effective and well-organized trauma team. The purpose of the study is to analyze how the ETC training is evaluated by its participants and whether it is tailored to local needs. Materials and Methodology: The study includes eight courses conducted between 2010 and 2015, involving 109 medical professionals. Participants were given questionnaires where they could evaluate the various aspects of the course and comment on each of them, using a four-level scale. Finally, 78 surveys were qualified for the study. Results: The exercises were very highly rated (average 3.79 points), mainly for their interesting scenarios and station preparation. Equally well-evaluated was the short and concise method of instruction. The lowest ranked aspect was the course fee (2.41 points). There were oft en negative comments about the use of English during the training (lectures and manuals). Discussion: The opinions of Polish students were similar to those of ETC participants in other European countries. There are many interesting advantages of workshop scenarios, while the downside is the time constraint. Nevertheless, the ETC has been very successful. High ratings and positive feedback affirm the high demand for such courses in Poland.
In 2018 we celebrate the 250th anniversary of the Jędrzej Śniadecki’s birth. This work aims to show the importance of his thoughts for the development of natural sciences. He studied at some of the largest universities in Europe, where he met great scientists of the Enlightenment. The effects can be seen in his works. He was remembered as a founder of Polish biochemistry, anthropology and pathology, also as the author of chemical terminology and language. The essence of his thoughts is Theory of organic being, which is an attempt to answer the question: „what is life?”. Jędrzej Śniadecki introduced a new definition of life based on the term „organic power”. This work shows how import are the thoughts of Jędrzej Śniadecki in the context of the times in which he lived, as well as the following development of natural sciences, what makes him and his theories worth memory.
Background: In early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP), systemic inflammatory response syndrome may lead to organ failure. The severe form of AP is associated with high mortality that may be prevented by timely diagnosis and treatment of the predicted severe cases. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) have been proposed as accurate early markers of severe AP. The aim of the study was to assess whether widely available blood count indexes: neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR), lymphocyte to monocyte (LMR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratios correlate with IL-6 and uPAR and may be utilized to predict organ complications at the early phase of AP. Methods: The study included 95 adult patients with AP treated at the Surgical Ward Complex of Health Care Centers in Wadowice, Poland. Organ failure was diagnosed according to modified Marshall scoring system, as recommended by 2012 Atlanta classification. Blood samples for laboratory tests were collected on days 1, 2 and 3 following the onset of AP symptoms. Results: Patients with organ failure presented significantly lower LMR on day 1 and signifi cantly higher NLR on days 2 and 3. Strong positive correlations between NLR and IL-6 and moderate correlations between NLR and uPAR were observed throughout the study. Day 2 and 3 NLR values significantly predicted organ failure at the early phase of AP. Conclusions: Taking into account the wide availability of NLR, it may be considered as a surrogate of more expensive tests to help the early assessment of organ failure complicating AP.
Paul Valéry (1871-1945) was considered in the 1930s one of the greatest French poet and essayist. He was the author of the famous poems: La Jeune Parque (The Young Fate) and Le Cimetiere marin (The Graveyard by the Sea). Many times in different situations he spoke very highly of Poland and Poles. Wednesday, October 28th 1936, Valéry arrived in Warsaw. He delivered two lectures during his brief stay. They met with great interest, they were in the papers, they have been mentioned by Polish writers: Wacław Grubiński, Zofia Nałkowska, Tadeusz Breza. Also, Czesław Miłosz and Ludwik Hieronim Morstin have written about meetings with Paul Valéry. Poet`s visit, although very short, was a significant event in Polish cultural life.
Krzysztof Maurin was an extremely versatile intellectual and academic teacher. He worked in mathematics (monograph “Methods of Hilbert space”), philosophy (publication “Karl Jaspers – a philosopher of truthfulness”), theology (essay “The Son of Man as the foundation of great religions”) as well as in psychology and he taught in the Faculty of Physics of the Warsaw University: I was taught by Him during a second half of His life since the beginning of the 70s. Now we are seeing and presenting his various activities in the time analysed by him in senses of quantum and cosmic physics, Heidegger's philosophy, Schweitzer's theology and human and humanitarian psychology. Therefore we remind below his lectures on Medieval Universities, Humboldt's reform, the XIX century mathematics and indeterministic interpretation of quantum mechanics. Then, according to a chronological order, we are switching our attention to Krzysztof Maurin himself as a student of university underground courses during the time do Nazists occupation in Poland, then as a silent university employee resisting communist totalitarian ideology and after 1956, as a methodical professor of the University of Warsaw collaborating with Western Europe scientists such as LDrs GDrding, Werner Heisenberg, Rene Thom and Friedrich von Weizsacker as well as admiring especially intellectual achievements of Hermann Weyl and Martin Heidegger. To the end of biographical considerations we can observe successes and obstacles encountered by Krzysztof Maurin while He has tended to conciliate various or opposite ways of philosophical understanding or social behaving by his beloved thinkers.
In this year we commemorate the 50 year anniversary of death of the outstanding Polish physical chemist professor Wojciech Świetosławski (1881–1968). His work was reviewed by prof. prof A. Dorabialska, K. Zieborak, W. Kemula and others. In this note one of his last and youngest students brings about reminiscences of the political problems he had to face, which could not have been described or even mentioned under the Soviet communist rule over Poland.
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive, anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria, widely spread in the human environment. In the last decade, the frequency and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been increasing, making this particular disease one of the most significant nosocomial infections. The aim of our study was an analysis of CDI risk factors, its course and consequences. Materials and Methods: Medical documentation of the patients treated for CDI in the University Hospital in Cracow and St Anne’s Hospital in Miechów has been analysed. The analysis focused on epidemiological data, blood parameters, comorbidities, recurrence rate, and complication rate (deaths included). As part of risk factors analysis, antibiotic use or hospitalisation in a period of 3 months before the episode of infection was considered relevant. Blood tests have been performed using routinely employed, standard methods. Results: We evaluated data of 168 people infected with C. difficile, out of which there were 102 women (61%) and 66 men (39%). Th e median age of the patients was 74 years for the entire population with 76 years for women and 71 years for male patients. One hundred thirteen people (67%) had been previously hospitalised, and 5 person was a pensioner of a nursing home. 99 people (59%) were treated with antibiotics within 3 months before the first episode of infection. An average length of the hospital stay because of CDI was 11 days. One hundred thirty persons (77%) experienced only 1 episode whereas 38 people (23%) had more than 1 episode of infection. The person with the largest number of recurrences had 9 of them. Conclusions: The development of CDI is an increasing problem in a group of hospitalised persons, particularly of an old age. The general use of beta-lactam antibiotics is the cause of a larger number of infections with C. diffi cile. Vast majority of patients have had at least one typical risk factor of CDI development.
The paper considers a private ownership economy in which economic agents could realize their aims at given prices, Walras Law is satisfied but agents’ optimal plans of action do not lead to an equilibrium in the economy. It means that the market clearing condition is not satisfied for agents’ optimal plans of action. In this context, the paper puts forward three specific adjustment processes resulting in equilibrium in a transformation of the initial economy. Specifically, it is shown, by the use of strict mathematical reasoning, that if there is no equilibrium in a private ownership economy at given prices, then, under some natural economic assumptions, after a mild evolution of the production sector, equilibrium at unchanged prices can be achieved.