Rye is an important crop widely cultivated in Europe, but one of the hardest to improve due to its allogamy and self-incompatibility. The market for rye-based products is constantly growing thanks to the popularity of organic farming, feed production and diverse industry applications. To address these demands, new highly productive hybrid rye varieties are needed. Currently, full potential of heterosis in rye breeding is hard to reach due to the limited success in in vitro cultures. This review summarizes the progress in rye in vitro cultures and proposes novel approaches to overcome recalcitrance in this species.
Considering the increasing role of cities throughout the world and in Europe, the European Union regulations on cohesion policy that are binding in the 2014–2020 programme period have foreseen the need to introduce a separate intervention dedicated to cities and their functional areas. However, the implementation of these solutions did not come without certain problems. They referred both to the process of institutionalising co-operation and to the realisation of projects. Also in Poland, Integrated Territorial Investments have not gone beyond co-operation for the absorption of EU funding so far, which demonstrates doubtlessly that their potential still remains unexploited. Thus, a discussion on both the positive and negative aspects of the implementation of ITIs is necessary. Poland, as the largest beneficiary of the Cohesion Policy, has a wide experience, which might provide valuable information on that matter. The aim of the paper is to present these experiences and to provide conclusions for the regional policy.
Since the second half of the 20th century many cities in Poland lose population and the rate is more than likely to increase in future. The determinants that have the greatest impact on the process of shrinking cities are those related to economic transformation and restructuring of the so called traditional industry and consequences of the second demographic transition. In general, it can be distinguished a few main drivers for shrinkage of cities: transformation, suburbanization, demographic change (e.g. falling birth rates, outmigration in rural depopulation areas), environmental pollution. Shrinkage is a varied phenomenon because of its multidimensional, multiscalar and multitemporal character. But the multifacted character of these processes renders their recognition and estimation difficult. The purpose of the article is to identify the sorts of shrinking cities and to presents method of measuring this process. This paper presents the differentiation of shrinking cities process in Poland on the basic of selected empirical indicators. A detailed analysis was conducted in cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants in the period of 2000–2017.
The basic resource of urban planning is space, which as a result of transformation has a direct impact on socio-economic development and quality of life. The author’s purpose was to define planning solutions for urban spatial policy, which can raise the quality of living, especially in the residential environment. In connection with the above, the literature of the subject was analysed and examples of good spatial policy and urban development in the living environment were shown. Particular attention was paid to the planning solutions in Paris and Vienna, as well as to the examples of the new living environment creation in some Scandinavian cities.
Participatory budgeting has become an important element of empowerment of the residents in the process of spatial planning in Polish cities. The citizens gained the right and a concrete tool to implement their ideas on how to change the city spaces. Many of the projects of participatory budgeting are the results of serious negligence in basic infrastructure in the cities. On the other hand, some of them are an expression of great ingenuity and innovative approach of the citizens to the modernization and arrangements in urban spaces. The civic projects improve quality of life and increase the utility value of public spaces. The main aim of the paper is to review and classify tasks changing public spaces under the formula of participatory budgeting. The research in a form of diagnosis enables to present the directions of participatory budgeting. It helps to monitor and evaluate the social impacts in the process of city space transformations. The subject of analysis are participatory budgets in Łódź and Katowice based on editions in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.
In the era of an aging society, age friendly cities planning is gaining in importance. Due to the low mobility of these people, it is important to plan their immediate living environment, ensuring access to facilities and areas that meet the basic needs of this special group of urban space users. The paper analyzes the potential accessibility of older people to green areas, sports and recreation facilities, service and commercial facilities, culture and health care facilities, and public transport stops, in order to delimit problem areas characterized by functional and spatial deficits in this area. In addition, the level and quality of accessibility of older people to the abovementioned elements of development.
Transport is one of the factors influencing the development of metropolitan areas. However, for its efficient work, numerous optimizations are required. Main tasks are shortening travel time, improving service quality and increasing the number of passengers served. The author has presented current studies on the field in optimization of public transport, mainly ways to optimize the transport network construction, based on large data sets about the population and their communication behaviour. Methods of combining various types of public transport with each other are presented. In the paper also are presents authors studies on the communication accessibility within the city of Cracow. Estimated distances from buildings to various types of public transport stops. The results were presented in aggregated form. Calculated communication speed of three types of public transport functioning in Cracow has also been discussed.
The post-mining areas due to the difficulties of those, often associated with expensive activities, usually take the form of wasteland. In contrast, unavailable, unused and alien areas the mentality of residents, are identified with empty space. The purpose of the authors was to answer the question: Are post-mining areas becoming empty spaces? Her research basis was changes in the functioning of post-mining areas and empty spaces in Katowice – a city with a long-standing mining tradition. Using GIS tools, a spatial analysis was carried out to determine the empty spaces functions and the perceiving of the post-mining areas by residents or users of a given district nearby.
The Cracow districts have the status of auxiliary self-governing units within this city and, generally should be communities of residents living in particular parts of the city, close to them, in which they implement their daily practices. In theer article, the authors, by examining the sense of belonging to the district, undertook to identify its perception by residents and relations between the residents and their auxiliary units, on the example of two such districts this of VIII Dębniki and X Swoszowice. Attitudes of their residents towards self-governing districts were identified on the basis of 1141 questionnaires, obtaining during surveys conducted in 2017. The authors have found relatively weak relations of residents with their auxiliary units, as evidenced by small involvement in initiatives taken for the benefit of this districts. The analysis, however, showed also considerable differences in the detailed assessment of the attitudes of residents at the level of their division according to their age groups, period of the residence, as well as to the type of housing a single-family, multi-family or mixed ones.
The aim of the article was to determine the course of changes the urban space under the influence of tourism, on the example of selected areas in Cracow. A literature study, statistical data and field studies were used to explain the relationship between the growth of tourist movement and the development of the tourist space of this city. The impact of tourism on changes in public and private space use within Matejki Square and Pawia Street, in the neighbourhood of the historical zone (Old Town) and in the New Square at Kazimierz, was analysed. The conducted analysis showed three functional changes of the studied areas under the influence of the rapid tourist movement. They were transformed from residential-service to service-residential related to service of tourists (hotels, gastronomy, trade, entertainment). The urban space has been enriched with elements that increasing the tourist attractiveness of Cracow compared with other cities, for example, concerning spending free time (pubs, cafés, restaurants), and the new accommodation base near the city-centre. A lack of a zoning plan and development vision causes the helplessness of the local authorities in managing the tourist infrastructure development, which is reflected at the Kazimierz New Square.
The urban form creates the city structure, whose spatial values not only shape the functionality of the city, but also its identity, whose the most important determinant is the urban tissue. The subject of the study is the analysis of selected historical areas of Cracow in the scope of composition and readability of their urban structure. The analysis focuses on the identification of the most important aspects of spatial renewal processes of these spaces. These processes aimed at strengthening their potential as local centres, that can become a factor stimulating the development of the individual urban units. The increase in the attractiveness and quality of public spaces will positively affect the degree of their perception by the inhabitants and the social relations taking place in them. This in turn, influences the degree of the social involvement in development processes and the creation of more or less spontaneous, bottom-up activities.
The state of development, the existing and emerging forms of development, the intensity and legibility of settlement systems, all this is essential for the living conditions of urban residents, their surroundings and peripheral systems. The purpose of the article is to assess the accessibility to market and public services by estimating the distance to these services from housing facilities in Poland. The use of the residential dispersion ratio (RDR) and an analysis of the spatial distribution of municipalities with the highest values of the coefficient allows to identify areas where accessibility to public and market services is weak.
The article aims to present the scope of influence of Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) on the sustainable development of urban functional areas (FUAs) in Poland. Against the background of the general principles of the implementation of the both instruments, practical aspects of the implementation of ITI in FUAs have been presented. Detailed analyses in the financial and spatial aspect were carried out using the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI). These provided the basis for presenting the practical aspect of supporting the sustainable development of urban functional areas in the EU Cohesion Policy 2014–2020.
The main aim of the research has been to characterise changes the urban functional areas in Poland over 2002–2017 period. The research was based on J.W. Webb’s population development types method enabling to identify links between natural growth and the migration net. A wider analysis concerned components of real increase which, through feedback, influenced level and population dynamics in these areas. Results of the study showed the diversity of demographic processes within Polish urban functional areas as well as in their cores, which will shape different processes in those areas in the future.
The article presents the problem of the settlements development in the Ojców National Park (ONP) and its buffer zone, both located in the suburban area of Cracow (Poland). The aim of the research was to recognize the social perception of this phenomenon, as well as the residents opinion about the limitations in spatial management related to the functioning of the Park. Interviews were made among 204 residents, and 40 representatives of local self-governments, cultural institutions, associations, administrators of tourist facilities and entrepreneurs. The local community perceives constraints in the new buildings construction and in enlargement or modernization of the existing ones as the main problem for people living in the ONP or its buffer zone. Driven by their particular interests, residents advocate the further development of the settlements and tourist infrastructure within the Park and the buffer zone, the liberalization of regulations, and even the liquidation of the Park’s buffer zone. They do not understand that the natural and landscape values (highly appreciated by them) can be degraded due to these activities.
The analysis of the fractal dimension becomes one of the new approach features in spatial research. This approach bases on the perception of space as a living structure, an organism which in its complexity and heterogeneity is a multi-scale creation although holistically perceived. The aim of the authors was to determine the nationwide fractal dimensions for the distinguished construction categories and designation of general regularities in these layout.
With the increase in the mass of municipal waste generated, the demand for facilities dealing with their development is increasing. The aim of the research was to determine environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the location of waste management facilities and an attempt to indicate potential locations for selected waste management facilities in the communes of the Sądecko-Gorlicki region. The scope of work included: a review of existing waste management facilities in the studied region, acquisition of geodatabase for digital data, analysis of the distance between the waste management facilities and environmental or anthropogenic elements, and analysis of potential locations designated in the GIS based on the developed criteria.As a result of spatial analyzes, it was found that in the study area, there are 3 places of potentiallocations for installation of municipal solid waste treatment facilities.
The aim of the research was the evaluation of wastewater management in terms of stability and efficiency of wastewater treatment, using statistical quality control. For this purpose, the analysis of the operation and operation of the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was made, which is one of the most important and largest sewage management facilities in the city of Cracow. This assessment was done using control charts x for 59 observations. The analysed research period covered the multi-year from 2012 to 2016. Five key pollutant indicators were used to evaluate the work of the tested object: BOD5, CODCr, total suspension, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. In the case of the majority of them, based on the analysis of control charts, full stability of their removal was found in the tested sewage management facility. The exception was total nitrogen, for which periods of disturbed stability of its disposal processes were noted. Analysis of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment showed each time that the required efficiency of reduction of the analysed pollution indicators in the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was achieved.
Landscape is an object of perception, while its image is the sum of ideas on this object. Both terms used in the title of the paper have fairly strong impact on each other. In order to manage the city’s image well, it is necessary to take care of the landscape in all its areas especially in the “forgotten” and degraded ones. The aim of the author was to identify elements of landscape exposure along railway lines – areas with low aesthetic value in many cities around the world. The research area includes railway lines, in Cracow and Wrocław. The method adopted for the implementation of the study is the analysis of mental maps made in 2018 during field workshops. The paper is ended by conclusions on the landscape impact on the image of the city.
Multidimensional, variety of saving memories ways in landscape is visible in creation of commemorative spaces. These meaning is strictly connected with the most important events and persons in history of the country. Authors of article in their research are concentrated on commemorative space with monuments example in Poland and the world presence in landscape design meaning. They are announced by landscape analysis methods to recognition of structure, meaning and phenomena of chosen objects in genius loci categories. In Study of Conditions and Directions of Space Development Capital City of Warsaw is found the record that “commemorative resource” is not enough examined and protected. The aim of elaboration is indication of tendencies in aspects of location, space relations and meanings of memory places.
The author has presented a short history of the Economic Geography Department of the Cracow University of Economics in the years 1958–2018. The scientific and didactic staff, its basic journalistic achievements and the main didactic activity were presented.
The article proposes the use of a synthetic indicator in spatial research. In the construction of synthetic indicator, it assumes that the indicator should not only specify the synthetic value based of on empirical data, but also show its structure. The structure of the indicator should answer the question to what extent individual empirical measures influence to the value of a synthetic indicator. Using the rules of statistical grouping, four groups of voivodships with different economic potential were distinguished. Research shows that on the synthetic indicator of voivodships (in particular groups) were affected to a varying extent by the values of empirical variables: number of employees, value of fixed assets, value of gross domestic product, number of economic operators.
The purpose of the author was to indicate the deficiency of development management instruments currently used to the territorialization of policies in stimulating intra- and intersectoral partnership cooperation. Her reflections were based on the results of research commissioned by the Polish Ministry of Development and Investment by a team in which the author participated. These studies have revealed that the weakest impacts of the so-called territorial instruments include the ability to mobilize various stakeholder groups to take action and to create partnership cooperation. Against this background, the author has undertaken the analysis of the potential impact of territorial tools on the partnerships development and has attempted to present recommendations for practice and further research in this area.
The author’s aim was to present actual conditions of rural primary schools functioning and the spatial differentiation of their network reorganization with particular emphasis on the consequences of those schools liquidation change their a governing body other from the local government units (LGU) to local community organizators. The study was focused on rural areas of the Małopolskie Voivodship over 2000–2016 period. In the paper were presented the number of pupils and schools (open and closed) and the school governing bodies structure too. Those data, obtained by the author from the Local Data Banks and the Board of Education in Cracow and were presented for each statistical locality. A population and settlement concentration in many rural areas made costs of schools maintenance higher and higher. Thus school governing bodies faced a difficult decision – either to reorganize the actual school network or to spend more on education from the municipal budget. Most complicated structures is observed in the rural areas showing depopulation and dispersed settlement, the zones of traditional agricultural. In all rural areas of the Małopolskie Voivodship, the number of pupils in primary schools during the analysed period decreased nearly by 30%. Thus 118 small rural schools were closed i.e. in the county Miechów, of 43 schools remained only 21. The number of closed schools would be much higher without a activity of the local communities, which began to take over their schools from the LGU. Within rural areas the Małopolskie Voivodship in 2016, 123 schools were run by local organization i.e. over 11,5% of all the rural primary schools.