This article presents the concept of fate in the stories of the poet and literary sketches of twentieth-century Russian writer Jurij Dombrowski. The writer creates psychological portraits of Romantic poets, including George Byron, Alexander Gribojedov, Wilhelm Küchelbecker, focusing on selected episodes from their lives. In the article attempt is made to prove that the fate of the nineteenth-century artists serve as an excuse to explain the problems of contemporary author. Characteristics of historical fi gures are made through the prism of Dombrowski’s biography. The combination of biography and autobiography allows Dombrowski to present the subjective concept of the poet: a man condemned to loneliness and misunderstanding, confl icted with the epoch, trying to overcome the tragic dependence on historical conditions through art and creativity.
The author examines Ways of Russian Theology in Georges Florovsky works in the light of contemporary trends in epistomology and a modern understanding of intelligibility. In the 20th century attemt were undertaken to develop a project of theology that would address the current intellectual demands and at the same time be in the service of faith in Jesus Christ, the Son of God and Saviour. The currently prevailing concept of teology as an ongoing interpretation of the event of Jesus as Christ and Word of God revealed in history, recognizes an interdependece between the fundamental Christian experience (Tradition) and the historical experience of “here and now”
The author, putting the metaphor of “a living dead” to the interpretation, tries to find the common points in the creative output of both writers i.e. Pushkin and Kharms. Both writers, belonging to extremely different literary periods and using other medium, were interested in the most important matters, among others the matter of life and death. Paradoxical metaphor of “a living dead” may imply not only a person being physically exhausted but above all a person deprived of emotions, experience and human reactions, whose fate brings nothing else but the inevitability of death. However, the matter that links both Pushkin and Kharms is the concept of “a coincidence”, which rules human fate, which is unpredictable, hard to avoid and which is a tool at hands of the providence.
The author of the dissertation described two unpublished so far hand written musical Oktoihs (Znamenny chant) of the Old Believers from his private collection. Based on those manuscripts the author indicates the important codicological and paleographical features of musical writing of the Theodosian and Pomorian Old Believers. Furthermore, the author presents the structure of the Oktoih book used by the Old Believers and makes overview of the polish literature concerning the discussed issues. The aim of the dissertation is to encourage other collectors of ancient manuscripts to share their collections and elaborations with researchers.
The present article introduces a new approach to the Old Russian texts by revealing metrical patterns underlying seemingly prose texts of the chronicle Povest vremennykh let. These patterns proved to be a shared feature of Eastern Slavic oral epic traditions. Thus, ideas of Ivan Franko about metrical character of the chronicles and Ivan Nikiforov’s claim about metrical affi nities of Eastern Slavic epic traditions are developed and enriched by up to date linguistic as well as ethnomusicological observations. Metrical affi nities of certain fragments of the chronicle Povest vremennykh let and Eastern Slavic epic give new clues to the possible persistence of oral epic in written form and consequently broaden the range of Old Russian texts that can be regarded as epic. Poetical epic corpus, enlarged in this way, gives a new relevant context to Slovo o polku Igoreve, authenticity of which can be proven now with more certainty on the basis of metrical affi nities with the fragments of chronicle of presumably oral origin.
Scribes of the oldest part of the manuscript posted their names in two notes. In the fi rst note the final letter of the scribe’s name is seriously damaged. It is generally believed that his name was Mičьka (Мичька). The author proves that the scribe’s name is a derivative from the suffi x –ko (Mičьko). In the second note the name of the scribe is heavily damaged in the initial part, which results in a number of interpretations. According to the author’s studies the name of the scribe was Potamij (Потамий, gr. PÒtamoj).
The article is concerned with methods of translating V. Shukshin’s occasionalisms into English. The study material has been extracted from translations done by A. Bromfield, K.M. Cook, R. Daglish, W.G. Fiedorow, J. Givens, G. Gutsche, G.A. Hosking, D. Illiffe, L. Michael, H. Smith, N. Ward. Based on the analysis of the material the following means of conveying V. Shukshin’s occasionalisms can be distinguished: translation by substitution, translation by means modifying idiomatic expressions, applying semantic calquing, using a descriptive method to recreate occasionalisms, as well as lexical and grammatical transformations. Two of them can be considered fully equivalent ways of recreating the writer’s occasionalisms (translation by means modifying idiomatic expressions, semantic calquing), the rest, however, should be regarded as only partially accurate.
The article is devoted to personal nouns with suffi x -ant in Polish and Belarusian. The lexical and semantic analysis of the studied group of words showed that in both languages they belong to the literary variety of language, however, numerous nouns represent rare vocabulary, sometimes characterized stylistically. The overwhelming majority of names defi nes the names of active contractors of activities, less often – passive contractors, and least frequently – names of owners. In addition, the nomina masculina with suffi x -ant belong to the attributive names, defi ning people on the basis of their character traits, tendencies, and often vices. The s tudied lexis include archaic or colloquial derivatives. Among the specialist words, there were examples representing such fi elds as law and judiciary, economics and trade, religion and art, education and science.
The foregoing article is an attempt at answering the question, whether Fiodor Sologub is rightly called a eulogist of evil and an apologist of devil, as well as a God-iconoclast. For this purpose the author is trying to revise the hitherto views concerning the fi gure of God in the lyric of the Russian poet. In the effect of conducted studies it was established that the myth of Sologub, “the literary Jack the Ripper”, functioning well until today was based on unjust and often prejudicial opinions of persons from the symbolist’s generation, as well as of the later experts in literature, who ascribed to them the “crimes” committed by the protagonists of his novels (sadism, erotomania, necrophilia and Satanism). The key problem of God-iconoclasty in turn, as it has been revealed, is connected with the issue of literary mask, a play with the reader. On one hand, the poet’s God-iconoclasty is an attempt of “getting inscribed” in the creative tendency that predominated in the Russian literature of that time (the “diabolic symbolism”), on the other – it constitutes one of the stages in looking for God and the development of lyrical “I”, carrying autobiographical traits.
The paper is concerned with the most fundamental compositional divide to be found in lyrical discourse, consisting in that the latter one is normally split into an empirical part, presenting the author’s concrete experience, and a focal part, where the author discovers some signifi cant truth or/and changes her attitude towards the world. It is claimed in the paper that, more generally, one of the specifi c linguistic properties of focal fragments is their higher and/or specially underscored informativity, and, in particular, one of the means recruited to emphasize it is inverted word order.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of biomedical signals measured during all-night polysomnography to diagnose sleep disorders, including sleep apnoea. Usually two central EEG channels (C3-A2 and C4- A1) are recorded, but typically only one of them are used. The purpose of this work was to compare discriminative features characterizing normal breathing, as well as obstructive and central sleep apnoeas derived from these central EEG channels. The same methodology of feature extraction and selection was applied separately for the both synchronous signals. The features were extracted by combined discrete wavelet and Hilbert transforms. Afterwards, the statistical indexes were calculated and the features were selected using the analysis of variance and multivariate regression. According to the obtained results, there is a partial difference in information contained in the EEG signals carried by C3-A2 and C4-A1 EEG channels, so data from the both channels should be preferably used together for automatic sleep apnoea detection and differentiation.
To find effective and practical methods to distinguish gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns, new flow pattern maps are established using the differential pressure through a classical Venturi tube. The differential pressure signal was first decomposed adaptively into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Hilbert marginal spectra of the IMFs showed that the flow patterns are related to the amplitude of the pressure fluctuation. The cross-correlation method was employed to sift the characteristic IMF, and then the energy ratio of the characteristic IMF to the raw signal was proposed to construct flow pattern maps with the volumetric void fraction and with the two-phase Reynolds number, respectively. The identification rates of these two maps are verified to be 91.18% and 92.65%. This approach provides a cost-effective solution to the difficult problem of identifying gas-liquid flow patterns in the industrial field.
New measurement technologies, e.g. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), generate very large datasets. In many cases, it is reasonable to reduce the number of measuring points, but in such a way that the datasets after reduction satisfy specific optimization criteria. For this purpose the Optimum Dataset (OptD) method proposed in  and  can be applied. The OptD method with the use of several optimization criteria is called OptD-multi and it gives several acceptable solutions. The paper presents methods of selecting one best solution based on the assumptions of two selected numerical optimization methods: the weighted sum method and the "-constraint method. The research was carried out on two measurement datasets from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS). The analysis have shown that it is possible to use numerical optimization methods (often used in construction) to obtain the LiDAR data. Both methods gave different results, they are determined by initially adopted assumptions and – in relation to early made findings, these results can be used instead of the original dataset for various studies.
The accuracy and reliability of Kalman filter are easily affected by the gross errors in observations. Although robust Kalman filter based on equivalent weight function models can reduce the impact of gross errors on filtering results, the conventional equivalent weight function models are more suitable for the observations with the same noise level. For Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with multiple types of observations that have different measuring accuracy and noise levels, the filtering results obtained with conventional robust equivalent weight function models are not the best ones. For this problem, a classification robust equivalent weight function model based on the t-inspection statistics is proposed, which has better performance than the conventional equivalent weight function models in the case of no more than one gross error in a certain type of observations. However, in the case of multiple gross errors in a certain type of observations, the performance of the conventional robust Kalman filter based on the two kinds of equivalent weight function models are barely satisfactory due to the interaction between gross errors. To address this problem, an improved classification robust Kalman filtering method is further proposed in this paper. To verify and evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation tests were carried out based on the GPS/BDS data and their results were compared with those obtained with the conventional robust Kalman filtering method. The results show that the improved classification robust Kalman filtering method can effectively reduce the impact of multiple gross errors on the positioning results and significantly improve the positioning accuracy and reliability of PPP.
The paper presents the campaigns of mobile satellite measurements, carried out in 2009–2015 on the railway and tram lines. The accuracy of the measurement method has been analysed on the basis of the results obtained in both horizontal and vertical planes. The track axis deviation from the defined geometric shape has been analysed in the areas clearly defined in terms of geometry, i.e. on the straight sections and sections with constant longitudinal inclination. The values of measurement errors have been estimated on the basis of signals subjected to appropriate processes of filtration. The paper attempts to evaluate the changing possibilities of using the GNSS techniques to determine the shape of the railway track axis from 2009 to 2015. The determined average value of the measurement error now equals a few millimetres. This achievement is very promising for the prospects of mobile satellite measurements in railway engineering.
A metrological verification of a high precision digital multimeter was made by the laboratory of calibration of programmable electrical multifunction instruments of the National Institute of Metrological Research (INRIM) in order to verify its accuracy and stability. The instrument had been tested for a period of six months for five low-frequency electrical quantities (DC and AC Voltage and Current and DC Resistance). Its stability and precision were compared with the accuracy specifications of the manufacturer. As a new approach, a performance index of the DMM was introduced and evaluated for each examined measurement point. The DMM showed a satisfactory agreement with its specifications to be considered at the level of other top-class DMMs and even better in some measurements points.
The Hopkinson pressure bar has been developed to calibrate and assess high g accelerometers’ capacity. The extreme caution is indispensable for performing calibration of severe characteristics, like the bearable super-high overload peak and wide duration of stress. In the paper, the Hopkinson bar calibrating system is being critically appraised. A limiting formula is deduced based on the stress wave theory. It indicates that the overload peak and duration of stress are limited by the elastic limit and wave speed of Hopkinson bar material. Both stress wave configurations in the form of linear ramp and cosine functions were designed theoretically to meet typical calibrating requirements. They were confirmed experimentally with the aid of the pulse shaping technique. Their corresponding calibration characteristics were analysed critically, and it was found that the cosine stress wave can achieve the values of acceleration peak or duration by #25;=2 times greater than those obtained with the linear stress wave. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for more extreme calibration requirements.
The paper provides statistical analysis of the photographs of four various granular materials (peas, pellets, triticale, wood chips). For analysis, the (parametric) ANOVA and the (nonparametric) Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied. Additionally, the (parametric) two-sample t-test and (non-parametric) Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test for pairwise comparisons were performed. In each case, the Bonferroni correction was used. The analysis shows a statistical evidence of the presence of differences between the respective average discrete pixel intensity distributions (PID), induced by the histograms in each group of photos, which cannot be explained only by the existing differences among single granules of different materials. The proposed approach may contribute to the development of a fast inspection method for comparison and discrimination of granular materials differing from the reference material, in the production process.
Combining surface measurement data from individual measurements of surface fragments is an issue that has been recognized for flat surfaces. The connection takes place on the principle of making ‘overlap’ measurements according to a specific measurement strategy, and then the algorithm synthesizes the measurement data for the common part (data fusion). This paper presents a method of combining partial data into one larger set using image processing methods. The purpose of the analysis is to combine surface data of a more complex shape in terms of surface roughness and waviness. A successful attempt was made to combine surface measurement data located on a cylindrical surface – convex surface. A rotated table was designed and used for surface data acquisition. The datasets were acquired with the use of CCI 6000 (366 μm – 366 μm) with the assumed overlapping of at least 20%. The measurement datasets were first pre-processed: filling in non-measured points, levelling and form re- moving were applied. For such processed datasets, the common part was identified (data registration) and then the data fusion was performed. An example of stitching the surface datasets shows usefulness of the presented methodology.
In the paper, the variation of the intensity of the geomagnetic field force is analysed in time and space. For the research, the data from measurements of the intensity of the geomagnetic field force at four airports (Kaunas, Klaip˙eda, Palanga andVilnius) and 6 geomagnetic field repeat stations aswell as the data from Belsk Magnetometric Observatory (Poland) were used. For the data analysis, the theory of covariance functions was applied. The estimates of the cross-covariance functions of the measured intensity of the geomagnetic field force or the estimates of auto-covariance functions of single data were calculated according to the random functions created from the force intensity measurement data arrays. The estimates of covariance functions were calculated upon varying the quantization interval on the time scale and applying the software created using Matlab package of procedures. The impact of radars of airports on the intensity of geomagnetic field variation and on changes of their covariance functions was established.