This article presents a comparative analysis of two poems, Stéphane Mallarmé’s ‘Soupir’ (1866) and Wacław Rolicz-Lieder’s ‘To My Sister’s Smile’, published in 1891. ‘Soupir’ is one of Mallarmé’s early poems, yet in many respects, as this analysis demonstrates, looks forward to the French poet’s mature phase and foreshadows the poetics of Wacław Rolicz-Lieder. Chief among the similarities are the autothematic focus and the intent to convey feelings of emptiness and longing for an ideal in poems refined to the point of préciosité. However, for all their preoccupation with the craft of poetry, either poet believed that inspiration was absolutely vital for creativity. This article argues that Mallarmé’s poetics, especially his ideas of inspiration and originality, was taken over by Wacław Rolicz-Lieder, who adapted it to suit his own poetic project.
This article presents little known facts sampled from the notes and personal records of Professor Stanis$aw Pigoń and Karol Wojtyła. The two met for the first time in 1938, when young Wojtyła began his studies at the Polish Department of the Jagiellonian University. A bond of mutual liking and respect, based on similar personalities and similar war experiences, morphed into an abiding friendship in the years after the war. The article chronicles that friendship on the basis of documents and private papers held in the Jagiellonian Library (Professor Pigoń’s Archives) and the Archives of the Metropolitan Curia in Cracow. Wojtyła, when he became Pope John Paul II always spoke warmly about his university teachers, especially about Professor Pigoń.
The article analizes Stanisław Pigoń’s essay ‘Some Golden Thoughts on the Chair of Polish Literature’ written to commemorate the 600th jubilee of the Jagiellonian University. Stanisław Pigoń (1885-1968), Distinguished Profesor of Polish Literature, had it published in the Cracow weekly Życie Literackie in May 1964; its expanded version was published two years later in a volume of essays Drzewiej i wczoraj [In the Old Days and Yesterday] in 1966. Both versions were published again in a a bibliophile volume in December 2018 (the manuscript and the printed versions). At the heart of Pigoń’s essay are the twin ideas of freedom and the ‘spiritual life of the nation’, borrowed from Juliusz Słowacki’s epic poem The Spirit King. The article examines Pigoń’s key theme and the manner in which, as he saw it, it shaped the lectures of the most eminent professors of Polish literature in the 19th and 20th century (Michał Wiszniewski, Karol Mecherzyński, Stanisław Tarnowski, Ignacy Chrzanowski). Pigoń’s survey ends in 1910, but, as the author of the article observes, by that time the ideas he so strongly believed in were as relevant as ever.
The ten years Stanisław Pigoń spent in Wilno (1921-1931) was a very important phase of his life. Wilno not only attracted a great deal of his research but also became the focus of a lasting emotional attachment, a sentiment which he reaffirmed in a memoir published shortly before his death in 1968. Although a lot is already known about Pigoń’s Wilno decade, there are some episodes that are worth a closer examination. One of them is a debate about Konrad’s cell which he triggered off just before leaving Wilno. The controversy concerns a cell in the former Basylian Monastery where Adam Mickiewicz was imprisoned in 1823 and where Konrad, the main character of his Dziady (Forefathers’ Eve) undergoes a spiritual transformation, the climax of the poetic drama. Pigoń contributions to this interminable debate exhibit a fine balance of scholarly precision and passionate conviction. This article not only looks at the origin and the early phases of the Konrad’s cell controversy in their contemporary background but also tries to show Pigoń’s involvement in the life of the university and the cultural and literary life of Wilno.
The article attempts to outline Adam Mickiewicz’s concept of subjectivity. He introduces it in his visionary poetic drama Dziady (Forefathers’ Eve) where a radically ambivalent situation is presented through the duality of the main character Gustaw/Konrad. The article describes this duality in terms of Paul Ricoeur’s distinction between cogito exalté and cogito brisé. In Dziady Mickiewicz dramatizes the transition from exaltation to dejection, the condition of cogito brisé (living with a wound). His romantic subject cannot throw away his past, but because he is acutely aware of his failings and his inadequacy he is able to free himself from delusions of grandeur and self-centered pride. The condition of uncertainty, inadequacy and chronic insatiability is like a gaping wound or a lack which may lead the ‘I’ to open up and seek the Other. It is a vision of man who knows he is deeply flawed but capable of pursuing a noble desire; vulnerable and fallible, beset by ‘endless error’ and yet able to act and get his act together; self-centered and yet, because of the relational nature of the human identity, capable of redirecting his emancipatory energy to Others. It can be summed up the concept of homo capax (homme capable) which, as this article argues, provides the key to Mickiewicz’s anthropology.
This article is a critical reappraisal of Juliusz Słowacki’s translation of Calderón’s El príncipe constant (1843), which acquired a place of its own in Słowacki’s oeuvre and continued to attract a lot of interest throughout the 20th century. Its lasting appeal is due to its extraordinary unity of tone, dramatic construction and stylized language, which in effect, as some critics have said, out-Baroques Calderón’s Baroque original. This article analyzes this contention in detail and tries to answer the question what were the sources and reasons of Słowacki’s fascination with the 17-th century Spanish poet and playwright. The second part of the article deals with two of the 20th-century stage productions of the drama and the adapters’ handling of Słowacki’s text. The summary includes a brief survey of the treatment Calderón’s heirs accorded to his key trope perigrinatio vitae (‘life is pilgrimage’).
Automation of earth moving machineries is a widely studied problem. This paper focusses on one of the main challenges in automation of the earth moving industry, estimation of loading torque acting on the machinery. Loading torque acting on the excavation machinery is a very significant aspect in terms of both machine and operator safety. In this study, a disturbance observer-assisted control system for the estimation of loading torque acting on a robotic backhoe during excavation process is presented. The proposed observer does not use any acceleration measurements, rather, is proposed as a function of joint velocity. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in tracking the reaction torques for a given dig cycle. Co-simulation experiments demonstrate robust performance and accurate tracking of the proposed control in both disturbance torque and position tracking. Further, the performance and sensitivity of the proposed control are also analyzed through the help of performance error quantifiers, the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the position and disturbance tracking errors.
Compared with the robots, humans can learn to perform various contact tasks in unstructured environments by modulating arm impedance characteristics. In this article, we consider endowing this compliant ability to the industrial robots to effectively learn to perform repetitive force-sensitive tasks. Current learning impedance control methods usually suffer from inefficiency. This paper establishes an efficient variable impedance control method. To improve the learning efficiency, we employ the probabilistic Gaussian process model as the transition dynamics of the system for internal simulation, permitting long-term inference and planning in a Bayesian manner. Then, the optimal impedance regulation strategy is searched using a model-based reinforcement learning algorithm. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method are verified through force control tasks using a 6-DoFs Reinovo industrial manipulator.
In the paper, a solution of the time-fractional single-phase-lagging heat conduction problem in finite regions is presented. The heat conduction equation with the Caputo time-derivative is complemented by the Robin boundary conditions. The Laplace transform with respect to the time variable and an expansion in the eigenfunctions series with respect to the space variable was applied. A method for the numerical inversion of the Laplace transforms was used. Formulation and solution of the problem cover the heat conduction in a finite slab, hollow cylinder and hollow sphere. The effect of the fractional order of the Caputo derivative and the phase-lag parameter on the temperature distribution in a slab has been numerically investigated.
Surface topography assessments with valley exploration are of great importance. Two-process surfaces are often proposed for many combustion engines. One of the errors committed in surface topography measurements and analysis are those that occur during data processing. In this paper, improper areal form removal was taken into consideration for plateau-honed cylindrical surfaces with additionally burnished oil pockets. Usually, the reference plane is established by application of: fitting algorithms (e.g. cylindrical shape), polynomials, filters and other procedures. In many cases, the influence of the reference plane was not fully recognized during valley depth consideration. Moreover, the influence of areal form removal with edge-to-dimple and valley‑to-dimple distances was not precisely defined. In this research, commonly used algorithms for form separation in surface topography analysis were proposed for the applications being considered. The digital filter bandwidth was also specified for valley depth analysis. The distortion of edge‑located oil pockets was specified. It was assumed that application of robust techniques does not necessarily provide the desired results.
The paper presents a solution for sensorless field oriented control (FOC) system for five-phase induction motors with improved rotor flux pattern. In order to obtain the advantages of a third harmonic injection with a quasi-trapezoidal flux shape, two vector models, α1–β1 and α3–β3, were transformed into d1–q1, d3–q3 rotating frames, which correlate to the 1st and 3rd harmonic plane respectively. A linearization approach of the dual machine model in d–q coordinate frames is proposed by introducing a new additional variable “x” which is proportional to the electromagnetic torque. By applying the static feedback control law, a dual mathematical model of the five-phase induction motor was linearized to synthesize a control system in which the electromagnetic torque and the rotor flux can be independently controlled. The results shows the air gap flux shape in steady as well transient states under various load conditions. Moreover, the implemented control structure acquires fault tolerant properties and leads to possible emergency running with limited operation capabilities. The fault-tolerant capability of the analyzed machine was guaranteed by a special implemented control system with a dedicated speed observer, which is insensitive to open-phase fault situation. The experimental tests have been performed with single and double-open stator phase fault. A torque measurement was implemented to present the mechanical characteristics under healthy and faulty conditions of the drive system.
The proper description of circuits supplied from an asymmetrical and sinusoidal voltage source, in which line parameters are included, requires an adequate mathematical concept or theory. The authors of the publication present the mathematical concept of the currents’ asymmetrical components for three-phase four-wire systems, taking into account the impedance of the neutral conductor and the impedance of power transmission lines. In the new approach, four orthogonal current components were proposed in charge of its flow between the source and the load. The introduced distribution shows, regardless of the type of the voltage asymmetry (amplitude or phase), it is possible to set down the symmetrical active current and other components, i.e. reactive current, negative current and zero current, which will allow determining the reference current of the active filter.
The positivity of fractional descriptor linear continuous-time systems is investigated. The solution to the state equation of the systems is derived. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of fractional descriptor linear continuous-time systems are established. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.
An automatic analysis of product reviews requires deep understanding of the natural language text by machine. The limitation of bag-of-words (BoW) model is that a large amount of word relation information from the original sentence is lost and the word order is ignored. Higher-order-N-grams also fail to capture the long-range dependency relations and word order information. To address these issues, syntactic features extracted from the dependency relations can be used for machine learning based document-level sentiment classification. Generalization of syntactic dependency features and negation handling is used to achieve more accurate classification. Further to reduce the huge dimensionality of the feature space, feature selection methods based on information gain (IG) and weighted frequency and odds (WFO) are used. A supervised feature weighting scheme called delta term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) is also employed to boost the importance of discriminative features using the observed uneven distribution of features between the two classes. Experimental results show the effectiveness of generalized syntactic dependency features over standard features for sentiment classification using Boolean multinomial naive Bayes (BMNB) classiﬁer.
Tungsten heavy alloys comprising tungsten, nickel and ferrous were modified, where molybdenum was added in varying weight proportions keeping the ratio of Ni: Fe (8:2) constant. The powders were mixed in a high-energy ball mill and were further fabricated using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method at a peak temperature of 1000°C with heating rate of 100°C/min. The details of the microstructure and mechanical properties of these various alloy compositions were studied. With the increasing weight composition of the Mo in the alloy, the relative density of the alloy increased with a significant improvement in all the mechanical properties. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness improved significantly with increase in the proportion of Mo; however, a reduction in elongation percentage was observed. The maximum strength of 1250 MPa UTS was observed in the alloy with a Mo proportion of 24%. The heavy alloy unmixed with Mo has shown distinct white and grey regions, where white (W) grain is due to tungsten and grey region is a combinatorial effect of Ni and Fe. Upon addition of Mo, the white and gray phase differences started to minimize resulting in deep gray and black ‘C’-phase structures because of homogenization of the alloy. The main fracture mode found during this investigation in the alloys was inter-granular mode.
This paper expands the M-K curve theory with examples of the most commonly mentioned pile-soil mechanics behaviours in the literature and their corresponding κ2 variations. A brief introduction shows the history of the Meyer-Kowalow theory and its basic assumptions. This is followed by the relationship between in situ investigation CPT results, with parameters C1, C2, Ct used to approximate the load-settlement curve according to the M-K theory. The Meyer-Kowalow curve satisfies asymptotic behaviour for small loads, where linear theory applies, and for limit loads, when pile displacement is out of control. Essential in the description are constant parameters C, which refer to the aggregated Winklers modulus, Ngr limit loads and k, which is crucial for static load test results. For this reason, the authors sought to calculate the κ value based upon soil mechanics principles. This article shows methods for checking statistical mathematical calculations, published earlier by Meyer using CPT investigations. It presents real case calculations and directions for future planned research.
The subject of the study was the production and characterization of three ceramic-metal graded composites, which differed in addition of the metallic phase. The following composites systems were investigated: Al2O3-Mo, Al2O3-Cu, Al2O3-W. Composites were produced by centrifugal slip casting method. This technique combines the classic casting of the slurry into porous molds with the action of centrifugal force. As a result, sleeve-shaped shapes with a metallic phase gradient were obtained. X-ray phase analysis have not revealed new phases in the produced composites. The type of metallic phase and its distribution in the ceramic matrix influenced the hardness of the produced composites.