Sewage and solid waste can be a valuable source of materials used directly or indirectly in manufacturing of usable products. These processes are associated with elimination of pollutants from liquid and solid wastes. The best-known methods of waste management are production of biogas and composting. This paper focuses on the possibility of obtaining biomass as a source of protein feed (whose value, in terms of the composition of aminoacids and microelements, is comparable with conventional feed, e.g. soymeal, bonemeal or fishmeal). Sewage components for bacterial, fungal, algal and vascular plants’ culture are characterized as a source of protein feed. Methods of industrial scale production of enzymes, mainly proteases and lipases that have broad applications in various industries, are discussed. Development perspectives of inexpensive methods of usable products from waste production are showed. Interdisciplinary nature of presented issues, which requires cooperation of specialists in biology, chemistry and technology, is emphasized.
Ibudilast (AV-411) is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). It is currently marketed for human use in Asian countries for the treatment of asthma, cerebrovascular disorders and ocular allergies. Ibudilast has also been found to have an analgesic action for neuropathic pain at doses 5-10 times higher than those used in asthma therapy. Six healthy Labrador dogs were randomly assigned to two treatment groups using an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-phase, cross-over design (2x2 Latin-square). Dogs in group 1 (n=3) were fasted for at least 10 hours overnight before the beginning of the experiment and 4 h following dosing while dogs in group 2 (n=3) received food ad libitum. During the first phase, each dog in group 1 and 2 received a single dose of 5 mg/kg ibudilast administered orally. After 1-week washout period the groups were rotated and the experiment was repeated. The analytical method, validated for dog plasma, was shown to be linear in the range 0.10–20 μg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/mL, respectively. No behavioural or health alterations were observed in the animals during or after the study. Ibudilast was detectable in plasma for up to 24 h showing a wide variability between animals. Although no statistically significant differences were observed in the present study between the fed and fasted states, examination of the raw data suggests that an effect may be present. The wide degree of variation observed in area under the curve (AUC) suggests that the investigation of population pharmacokinetic modelling is warranted.