In this stud y, we attempt to analyse free nonlinear vibrations of buckling in laminated composite beams. Two new methods are applied to obtain the analytical solution of the nonlinear governing equation of the problem. The effects of different parameters on the ratio of nonlinear to linear natural frequencies of the beams are studied. These methods give us an agreement with numerical results for the whole range of the oscillation amplitude.
GZO/IZO semiconductor thin films were prepared on the ITO substrate via sol-gel spin coating method for using in the dyesensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For this purpose, GZO and IZO thin films were optimized by the percentage of doping gallium and indium in zinc oxide and were studied their electrical, optical and structural properties. After that, the layers with the best performance were selected for use in the DSSCs. The concentration of all solutions for spin coating processes was 0.1 M and zinc oxide has been doped with gallium and indium, with different doping percentages (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 volume percentage). So, by studying the properties of the fabricated thin films, it was found the films with 0.5%GZO and 0.5%IZO have the best performance and hence, the optimized dual-layer (0.5% GZO/0.5% IZO (GIZO)) were prepared and studied their electrical and optical properties. The synthesized optimized dual-layer film was successfully used as the working electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The sample with 0.5%IZO shows the 9.1 mA/cm2 short-circuit current density, 0.52 V open circuit voltage, 63% fill factor and 2.98% efficiency.
Single crystalline cesium doped ZnO nanorods with homogeneous size and shape were grown hydrothermally on ITO substrates that are presented in our previous work. According to the previous work, XRD analysis showed that cesium doped ZnO nanorods are wurtzite single crystals and are grown preferentially along the c-axis. Also, the electrical conductivity of doped ZnO showed higher values for the 1% cesium, which confirmed incorporation of the cesium dopant. Cesium doped ZnO nanorods are suitable candidates for applications in solar cells. So, in this research, we employed cesium doped ZnO nanorods with the different dopant concentration in inverted polymer solar cell. By comparing the effect of doped ZnO nanorods with diverse dopant concentration (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2%) on the performance of devices, 1.0% cesium doped ZnO was found as the most effective doping level among the selected doping concentrations. Also, using 1.0% cesium doped ZnO nanorods, Jsc of 8.21 mA/cm², Voc of 0.541V and Fill Factor of 63.01% were achieved, which led to power conversion efficiency of 2.80%.