Previous studies identified large differences between countries in the extent to which childbearing intentions are realised. Failure to realise an intention to become a parent was found to be particularly common in the post-socialist countries. In this paper we examine whether similarly low rates of realisation of fertility intentions can be found in Poland. We use two waves of the Polish Generations and Gender Survey (GGS-PL), conducted in 2010/2011 and 2014/2015. We first describe fertility intentions of Polish women and men as declared at the survey’s first wave. Next, we examine whether the short-term childbearing intentions expressed at wave 1 were followed by an actual birth by the second round of the data collection. For the respondents who did not get a child between waves 1 and 2, we analyse the stability of their fertility plans. We find that approximately 35% of the respondents who at wave 1 intended to have a child in the next three years actually had one by wave 2. Both realisation and stability of fertility intentions varied markedly by gender and parity.
The aim of this study is to refl ect on two notions that are often used in contemporary research, relevant to cultural linguistics: linguistic vision of the world and linguistic image of the world. We start with expressing our conviction that it is not a question of two synonymic concepts nor do we believe that they are opposite notions. In our opinion, they are two ideas that refl ect the relationship between the language and culture of a speech community but at different levels and from a different perspective. In this study we will examine the research works that, in recent years, have used both notions in order to expose their advantages. In the fi rst part of our work we will discuss the background of the discipline and then provide the defi nitions of both notions and their uses most signifi cant uses. We will draw on the studies of researchers who study Slavic languages, Spanish and English.
In this study the quality of total RNA, isolated from fresh spermatozoa, was compared between boars with good and poor semen freezability (GSF and PSF, respectively). Semen from 3 boars with GSF exhibited significantly higher total motility, mitochondrial function, plasma membrane integrity and reduced lipid peroxidation compared with 3 boars with PSF after cryo- preservation. There were variations in the quality of RNA isolated from spermatozoa of boars with GSF and PSF. Boars with GSF exhibited mainly full-length, intact RNA, whereas substantial amounts of degraded RNA were detected in spermatozoa from boars with PSF. Further under- standing of the biological relevance of RNAs in sperm function is critical to improve the freezabil- ity of boar semen.
To determine the role of the pineal gland and its secretory product melatonin on various aspects of the functioning of the organism, the gland can be easily surgically removed in rats within 18 hours a fter birth. We performed pinealectomy in rats in a state of deep hypothermia under an operating microscope, using a micro-suction device of our own construction. The rats were induced into a state of suspended animation by placing them in the freezing compartment at minus 20 Celsius degrees. The cessation of respiration and heart beat lasted for about 15 minutes. During that time the pinealectomy was performed. In some cases there was minor hemorrhage that was easily controlled. There were no major side effects or mortality following surgery. All rats recovered within 15 minutes after the end of the procedure. The pinealectomy procedure described in this study is simple, rapid, effective and safe, and can be easily performed with instruments commonly available in most laboratories.
The aim of this study was to identify the proteoforms of albumin and kallikrein in stallion seminal plasma (SP), and to determine their correlations with sperm motility parameters. The experimental material consisted of ejaculates from 8 stallions, which were collected during the breeding and non-breeding seasons (BS and NBS, respectively). SP proteins were identified by 2-D PAGE and mass spectrometry (MALDI TOT/TOF MS). Sperm motility parameters were analyzed using the CASA system. Protein expression (integrated optical density-IOD) of albumin proteoforms 1 (ALB 1) and 2 (ALB 2) and kallikrein proteoforms 1 (KAL 1) and 2 (KAL 2) was correlated (p<0.05) with sperm motility parameters (total motility and progressive motility) during the BS. No significant correlations were found between the expression of albumin or kallikrein and sperm motility parameters during the NBS. The presence of correlations between the expression of ALB 1, ALB 2, KAL 1, KAL 2 and selected sperm motility parameters could suggest that the analyzed components of the SP belong to the group of fertility-associated pro- teins (FAPs).