Gdy spada temperatura, zmienia się stan skupienia wody. Rzeki, jeziora i morza skuwa lód, para wodna w atmosferze zamienia się w kryształki śniegu, a woda pod powierzchnią gruntu przyjmuje postać drobnych soczewek lub żył lodowych. W wysokich górach i w obszarach polarnych tworzą się lodowce i czapy lodowe. Wszystkie te duże i małe, widoczne i niewidoczne formy występowania wody w stałym stanie skupienia na kuli ziemskiej tworzą kriosferę.
When the temperature drops, rivers, lakes and seas become covered with ice, the water vapor in the atmosphere turns into snow crystals, and underground water turns into tiny ice lenses or veins. Glaciers and ice caps are formed in high mountains and in polar regions. All these large and small, visible and invisible forms of solid water on Earth together form what is known as the “cryosphere.”
Studies over talus cones in nothwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land enable to define main parameters of these forms, their morphogenetic features and longitudinal profiles. Three zones of occurrence of talus cones have been distinguished, dependent on microlimatic influence of glaciers. Zone A (below 150 m a.s.l.) is not influenced by glaciers. Zone В (from 150 to 350 m a.s.l.) is influenced by glacier snouts. Zone С (over 350 m a.s.l.) is under influence of firn fields. Most intensive development of talus cones in the studied area occurred during the Little Ice Age.
Three types of rock glaciers (moraine, cirque and subslope ones) were distinguished in northwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land. Subslope rock glaciers were found different from nival moraines. A development of subslope and fossil cirque rock glaciers was connected with the older Holocene whereas of active cirque and moraine rock glaciers with the Little Ice Age.
Methods and results of mass movement measurements on mountain slopes in northwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land are presented in connection with morphoclimatic zones. Debris movement was investigated using fishing nets while movement of solifluction tonques was studied with series of nails. Marks and lines crosswise the investigated forms were also painted. Creeping of stone belts was measured with a use of tree-nails. Observations of these measuring points after twelve months show usability of employed methods for a record of mass movements.
The paper presents characteristics of the Pleistocene sediments in the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains. They are subdivided into four complexes and their stratigraphic setting is referred to the updated scheme for the Pleistocene of Poland. The Preglacial Complex includes fluvial sediments characteristic for its lack of Scandinavian material. Sediments of three main glaciations (Nidanian, Sanian 1 and Sanian 2) within the South Polish Complex, are referred also as the South Polish Glaciations. The oldest of these glaciations (Nidanian) is separated from the middle glaciation (Sanian 1) by sediments of the Podlasian Interglacial, represented by clay at the Kozi Grzbiet Cave that contains faunal remains and record of the Brunhes/Matuyama palaeomagnetic boundary. During the middle (Sanian 1) and youngest glaciation (Sanian 2), the Holy Cross Mountains were almost completely covered by the Scandinavian ice sheet, forming glacial deposits separated by fluvial series of the Ferdynandovian Interglacial. The Middle Polish Complex begins with sediments of the Mazovian Interglacial, represented by a pollen record from the Zakrucze site. They are followed by deposits of periglacial and fluvial origin of the Liwiecian Glaciation, Zbójnian Interglacial, Krznanian Glaciation and Lublinian Interglacial. The following glaciation (Odranian) is represented by the youngest glacial deposits that document presence of the Scandinavian ice-sheet in the westernmost part of the Holy Cross Mountains. The North Polish Complex is composed of a climatic warming (Eemian Interglacial) and cooling (Vistulian Glaciation), and is represented by valley and periglacial deposits. The last cooling of the Pleistocene is recorded in faunal remains in the Raj Cave.
According to the current state of research five sand-gravel accumulation levels of Quaternary age are visible in the morphology of the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains, within the Wierna Rzeka, Hutka and Bobrza river valley systems and the lower stretches of the Biała Nida and Czarna Nida river valleys. Two upper levels (V and IV) correspond to valleys formed during the Odranian Glaciation-Saalian, MIS6 and its reccesional phases under the influence of proglacial and extraglacial waters beyond the extent (to the east) of the maximal ice-sheet limit of this glaciation, reaching to the present-day Leśnica-Gnieździska-Łopuszno line. Two lower levels (III and II) are terraces that were typically formed during the climatic conditions thatprevailed during Vistulian stadials. Sands and gravels of the three upper levels (V−III) contain numerous debris flow deposits and cryoturbation structures documenting periglacial conditions during their accumulation. The lowermost level (I) is a typical Holocene floodplain.
We propose contents of topographic maps for polar areas to be supplemented with such landforms that are easily identified during the analysis of air or terrestial photographs. Such landforms include rock outliers (monadnocks), glacial boundaries, a beach and thick mantles of tundra vegetation. All these landforms create together with fluvial and lake patterns a system of elements that enable location of users and therefore make preparation of other (e.g. geological, geomorphological or glaciological) maps possible.