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Abstract

We used cytological and embryological methods to study reproductive cycle stages in Cerasus fruticosa Pall., Cerasus × eminens (Beck) Buia and Cerasus × mohacsyana (Kárpáti) Janchen from SW Slovakia, focusing on development of the male and female reproductive organs, fertilization processes and embryo formation. We found that reproductive potential was reduced by synergistic effects of negative biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the presence of degenerated, deformed pollen grains and their great variability of shape and size, a sufficient amount of normally developed viable pollen grains developed in anthers of C. fruticosa and C. × mohacsyana. Disturbed microsporogenesis in C. × eminens led to significantly lower production of viable pollen grains. We did not observe serious disturbances during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis. Lower fruit set was caused by degeneration of ovules as a result of unsuccessful pollination, fertilization failure, or embryo degeneration during its initial development.
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Abstract

The aim of our research was to connect the detailed study of fruit anatomy of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) with identification and detection of the main non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds. Our experimental results showed that the highest accumulation of anthocyanin bodies occurred in mature fruits in outer layers during fruit development. The shape of the anthocyanin bodies was most often globular, spherical, hemispherical and intermediate types were present only occasionally. Mature cells of the gynoecium and pericarp generally contain anthocyanin bodies incorporated inside vacuoles. The observed compounds accumulated in cells were rutin, quercetin and catechins, resveratrol; coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acids, gallic, vanilic, syringic, cinnamic and caffeic acids. These compounds were selected because of their proposed positive effects on health. The analyses of the polyphenolic spectrum showed predominance of ferrulic acid together with gallic acid and catechins with quercetin.The aim of our research was to connect the detailed study of fruit anatomy of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) with identification and detection of the main non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds. Our experimental results showed that the highest accumulation of anthocyanin bodies occurred in mature fruits in outer layers during fruit development. The shape of the anthocyanin bodies was most often globular, spherical, hemispherical and intermediate types were present only occasionally. Mature cells of the gynoecium and pericarp generally contain anthocyanin bodies incorporated inside vacuoles. The observed compounds accumulated in cells were rutin, quercetin and catechins, resveratrol; coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acids, gallic, vanilic, syringic, cinnamic and caffeic acids. These compounds were selected because of their proposed positive effects on health. The analyses of the polyphenolic spectrum showed predominance of ferrulic acid together with gallic acid and catechins with quercetin.
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