The present studies explore how activating concepts pertaining to the origins of interindividual differences affect the processing of stereotypical and counterstereotypical information. The concepts, i.e., nature and nurture, are both assumed to evoke similar stereotypical expectations although nurture implies greater flexibility. The studies show that stereotypical information enhances whereas counterstereotypical information diminishes stereotyping when nurture is activated. In contrast, counterstereotypical evidence challenges what activated nature would suggest and perceivers primed with nature evince stronger stereotyping when they encounter counterstereotypical information. The results also show that priming nature leads perceivers to attribute stereotype conformity to internal causes whereas nurture accredits conformity to situational constraints. Stereotype flexibility is associated with the subjective ease with which perceivers can both imagine counterstereotypical and mentally undo stereotypical evidence.
Paper present a thermal analysis of laser heating and remelting of EN AC-48000 (EN AC-AlSi12CuNiMg) cast alloy used mainly for casting pistons of internal combustion engines. Laser optics were arranged such that the impingement spot size on the material was a circular with beam radius rb changes from 7 to 1500 m. The laser surface remelting was performed under argon flow. The resulting temperature distribution, cooling rate distribution, temperature gradients and the depth of remelting are related to the laser power density and scanning velocity. The formation of microstructure during solidification after laser surface remelting of tested alloy was explained. Laser treatment of alloy tests were perform by changing the three parameters: the power of the laser beam, radius and crystallization rate. The laser surface remelting needs the selection such selection of the parameters, which leads to a significant disintegration of the structure. This method is able to increase surface hardness, for example in layered castings used for pistons in automotive engines.
Two low-cost methods of estimating the road surface condition are presented in the paper, the first one based on the use of accelerometers and the other on the analysis of images acquired from cameras installed in a vehicle. In the first method, miniature positioning and accelerometer sensors are used for evaluation of the road surface roughness. The device designed for installation in vehicles is composed of a GPS receiver and a multi-axis accelerometer. The measurement data were collected from recorded ride sessions taken place on diversified road surface roughness conditions and at varied vehicle speeds on each of examined road sections. The data were gathered for various vehicle body types and afterwards successful attempts were made in constructing the road surface classification employing the created algorithm. In turn, in the video method, a set of algorithms processing images from a depth camera and RGB cameras were created. A representative sample of the material to be analysed was obtained and a neural network model for classification of road defects was trained. The research has shown high effectiveness of applying the digital image processing to rejection of images of undamaged surface, exceeding 80%. Average effectiveness of identification of road defects amounted to 70%. The paper presents the methods of collecting and processing the data related to surface damage as well as the results of analyses and conclusions.
The aim of the research was an examination of potential impact of milk yield on the intercompartmental clearance – distribution clearance as well as determination of the variability of obtained pharmacokinetic parameters by the population approach using a two-compartmental structural model. Blood perfusion has a considerable impact on physiology of the udder and kinetics of drugs that are distributed in this organ. The research was performed on healthy Holstein- Friesian and Polish Black-White cows at the age of 4-10 years. Determination of antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefoperazone, penicillin G prokaine, cloxacillin, cefacetril) concentration was carried out after their every intramammary administration to one quarter of the udder. A population pharmacokinetic model was created to fit milk concentration data. General milk yield of a single cow was used as a variable. A population analysis was conducted using non-linear mixed-effect modeling. The impact of milk productivity was set solely by reference to intercompartmental clearance only in case of penicillin G, cloxacillin and ampicillin. It, has been found that milk yield, depending on a drug, influenced the distribution clearance of the drug to varying degrees. It means indirectly that increased perfusion of the udder has a different impact on drug distribution from the udder to the bloodstream.
The paper includes a summary and a background of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at SilesianUniversity of Technology. The researchwork has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes a first part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to effective elimination of higher harmonics and reactive power compensation by means of parallel active power filters. The other problem discussed in this paper is related to this issue and it is very important from the economic point of view; it addresses optimal sizing and placement of active power filters in investigated power networks.
The paper includes a summary of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Silesian University of Technology. The research work has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes the second part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to three-phase system symmetrisation as well as effective elimination of higher harmonics and substantial improvement of power quality by means of hybrid active power filters.