Abstract The influence of selected factors on drying ceramic moulds applied in the investment casting technology was determined by the gravimetric method. Moulds produced of ceramic sands based on the new generation binders - colloidal silica, were investigated. It was found that each successive layer, of a similar thickness, is drying longer than the previous one. The drying time of layers forming closed spaces is several times longer as compared with drying open surfaces (external). Grain size of matrix used for moulds sprinkling has none significant influence on drying rates.
The obtained results of heating of sand moulds with binders by means of a thermal radiation of liquid metal are presented in this study. Standard samples for measuring Rg made of the tested moulding sands were suspended at the lower part of the cover which was covering the crucible with liquid metal (cast iron), placed in the induction furnace. The authors own methodology was applied in investigations. The progressing of the samples surface layers heating process was determined as the heating time function. Samples of a few kinds of moulding sands with chemical binders were tested. Samples without protective coatings as well as samples with such coatings were tested. The influence of the thermal radiation on bending resistance of samples after their cooling was estimated. The influence of several parameters such as: time of heating, distance from the metal surface, metal temperature, application of coatings, were tested. A very fast loss of strength of moulding sands with organic binders was found, especially in cases when the distance between metal and sample surfaces was small and equaled to 10÷15 mm. Then, already after app. 15 seconds of the radiation (at Tmet=1400o C), the resistance decreases by nearly 70%. Generally, moulding sands with organic binders are losing their strength very fast, while moulding sands with water glass at first increase their strength and later slightly lose. The deposition of protective coatings increases the strength of the mould surface layers, however does not allow to retain this strength after the metal thermal radiation.
The new investigation method of the kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands used for moulds and cores is presented in this paper. The gas evolution rate is presented not only as a function of heating time but also as a function of instantaneous temperatures. In relation to the time and heating temperature the oxygen and hydrogen contents in evolving gases was also measured. This method was developed in the Laboratory of Foundry Moulds Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH. Gas amounts which are emitted from the moulding sand at the given temperature recalculated to the time unit (kinetics) are obtained in investigations. Results of investigations of moulding sand with furan resin are presented - as an example - in the paper.
The results of researches of sorption processes of surface layers of components of sand moulds covered by protective coatings are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations comprised various types of sand grains of moulding sands with furan resin: silica sand, reclaimed sand and calcined in temperature of 700oC silica sand. Two kinds of alcoholic protective coatings were used – zirconium and zirconium – graphite. Tests were performed under condition of a constant temperature within the range 30 – 35oC and high relative air humidity 75 - 80%. To analyze the role of sand grains in sorption processes quantitavie moisture sorption with use of gravimetric method and ultrasonic method were used in measurements. The tendency to moisture sorption of surface layers of sand moulds according to the different kinds of sand grains was specified. The effectiveness of protective action of coatings from moisture sorption was analyzed as well. Knowledge of the role of sand grains from the viewpoint of capacity for moisture sorption is important due to the surface casting defects occurrence. In particular, that are defects of a gaseous origin caused by too high moisture content of moulds, especially in surface layers.
The investigation results of the kinetics of binding ceramic moulds, in dependence on the solid phase content in the liquid ceramic slurries being 67, 68 and 69% - respectively, made on the basis of the aqueous binding agents Ludox AM and SK. The ultrasonic method was used for assessing the kinetics of strengthening of the multilayer ceramic mould. Due to this method, it is possible to determine the ceramic mould strength at individual stages of its production. Currently self-supporting moulds, which must have the relevant strength during pouring with liquid metal, are mainly produced. A few various factors influence this mould strength. One of them is the ceramic slurry viscosity, which influences a thickness of individual layers deposited on the wax model in the investment casting technology. Depositing of layers causes increasing the total mould thickness. Therefore, it is important to determine the drying time of each deposited layer in order to prevent the mould cracking due to insufficient drying of layers and thus the weakening of the multilayer mould structure.
A large number of defects of castings made in sand moulds is caused by gases. There are several sources of gases: gases emitted from moulds, cores or protective coatings during pouring and casting solidification; water in moulding sands; moisture adsorbed from surroundings due to atmospheric conditions changes. In investigations of gas volumetric emissions of moulding sands amounts of gases emitted from moulding sand were determined - up to now - in dependence of the applied binders, sand grains, protective coatings or alloys used for moulds pouring. The results of investigating gas volumetric emissions of thin-walled sand cores poured with liquid metal are presented in the hereby paper. They correspond to the surface layer in the mould work part, which is decisive for the surface quality of the obtained castings. In addition, cores were stored under conditions of a high air humidity, where due to large differences in humidity, the moisture - from surroundings - was adsorbed into the surface layer of the sand mould. Due to that, it was possible to asses the influence of the adsorbed moisture on the gas volumetric emission from moulds and cores surface layers by means of the new method of investigating the gas emission kinetics from thin moulding sand layers heated by liquid metal. The results of investigations of kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands with furan and alkyd resins as well as with hydrated sodium silicate (water glass) are presented. Kinetics of gases emissions from these kinds of moulding sands poured with Al-Si alloy were compared.
The results of testing of the selected group of wax mixtures used in the investment casting technology, are presented in the paper. The measurements of the kinetics of the mixtures shrinkage and changes of viscous-plastic properties as a temperature function were performed. The temperature influence on bending strength of wax mixtures was determined.
The new investigation method of a permeability of ceramic moulds applied in the investment casting technology, is presented in the paper. Some concepts of performing permeability measurements are shown. Investigations in which the influence of the solid phase fraction in the liquid ceramic moulding sand (LCMS) on a permeability of a multi-layer ceramic mould were performed and discussed. The permeability was estimated during two the most important stages of the technological process: in the first – after wax melting and in the second – after mould annealing. Also an influence of the matrix grain sizes (material for sprinkling) on a ceramic mould permeability was estimated.
Gas emission from casting moulds, cores and coatings applied for sand and permanent moulds is one of the fundamental reasons of casting defects occurrence. In the previous studies, gas emission was measured in two ways: normalized, in which the evolving gas volume was measured during heating of the moulding sand sample in a sealed flask, or by measuring the amount of gas from sand core (sample) which is produced during the pouring of liquid metal. After the pouring process the sand mould is heated very unequally, the most heated areas are layers adjacent to the liquid metal. The emission of gas is significantly larger from the surface layer than from the remaining ones. New, original method of measuring kinetics of gas emission from very thin layers of sand moulds heated by liquid metal developed by the authors is presented in the hereby paper. Description of this new method and the investigation results of kinetics of gas emission from moulding sand with furan and alkyd resin are shown. Liquid grey cast iron and Al-Si alloy were used as a heat source in the sand moulds. Comparison of the kinetics of gas emission of these two kinds of moulding sands filled with two different alloys was made. The momentary metal temperature in sand mould was assigned to the kinetics of gas emission, what creates a full view of the possibility of formation of casting defects of the gaseous origin. Moulding sand with alkyd resin is characterized by larger gas emission; however gases are emitted slower than in the case of moulding sands with furan resin. This new investigation method has a high repeatability and is the only one which gives a full view of phenomenon’s in the surface layer which determines quality of the casings. The obtained results are presented on several graphs and analyzed in detail. They have a great application value and can be used in the production of iron as well as light metal alloy castings.
Issues connected with high quality casting alloys are important for responsible construction elements working in hard conditions. Traditionally, the quality of aluminium casting alloy refers to such microstructure properties as the presence of inclusions and intermetallic phases or porosity. At present, in most cases, Quality index refers to the level of mechanical properties – especially strength parameters, e.g.: UTS, YS, HB, E (Young’s Modulus), K1c (stress intensity factor). Quality indexes are often presented as a function of density. However, generally it is known, that operating durability of construction elements depends both on the strength and plastic of the material. Therefore, for several years now, in specialist literature, the concept of quality index (QI) was present, combines these two important qualities of construction material. The work presents the results of QI research for casting hypoeutectic silumin type EN AC-42100 (EN AC-AlSi7Mg0.3), depending on different variants of heat treatment, including jet cooling during solution treatment.