This article presents Jewish mutual aid associations in the Kingdom of Poland in the nineteenth century. Among the discussed matters are: the legal foundations for organising associations of this type, the chronology of their establishment, the socio-professional character of the founders and members, the attitudes of the authorities towards the creation and operation of these associations. The article is based on original, previously rarely used archives. There were 67 associations established in the discussed time period, including 32 in the Piotrków district (gubernia) and 17 in the Warsaw district.
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