The aim of our study was to determine the influence of L-carnitine (L-CAR) on the cellular parameters of hen erythrocytes during a 48 hour exposure to L-CAR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL in nutrient-deficient medium. Cell morphology, haemolysis, caspase 3/7 activity and glucose uptake (GU) were determined. The results showed a lower percentage of apoptotic cells and decreased haemolysis of erythrocytes treated for 48 hours at all the concentrations of L-CAR. The amino acid at 50 mg/mL inhibited the activity of proapoptotic caspase 3/7; however, it increased GU. In contrast, caspase 3/7 level was increased but GU was decreased in erythrocytes treated with 100 mg/mL of L-CAR when compared to the control. It may be hypothesized that reduction of apoptotic changes in hen erythrocytes may result from increased GU.
Characterisation of copy number variation (CNV) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has pro- vided evidence for the relationship of this type of genetic variation with the occurrence of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer lesions. The role of CNVs and germinal or somatic LOHs in canine mammary tumours is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify CNVs and LOHs in canine mammary tumours. Forty-eight samples obtained from normal (n=24) and tumour (n=24) tissues of dogs were analysed. In the study, we used CanineHD BeadChip assay (Illumina) and OncoSNP software to identify copy number alternations in genomes of dif- ferent dog breeds and in different mammary cancer types occurring in this species. The analyses revealed that, in the case of CNV, the amplification-type variants were longer and more frequent than deletions. Based on the analysis of the frequency of different types of aberrations in the in- dividual parts of the genome, regions that are particularly susceptible to structural aberrations were indicated. The fraction of genes identified within these regions was associated with major processes of neoplastic transformation. Association analysis of such traits as tumour grading as well as the size and age of dogs demonstrated that structural aberrations were more frequent in dogs diagnosed with tumour malignancy grade II and III, in dogs with a larger body size, and in large dogs aged 7-8. The promising results of these pioneering investigations prompt continuation thereof to analyse other types of cancer.