The purpose of the study is to analyze the opportunities and the challenges associated with the adoption of Information technology in the Indian SMEs. The significant usage of Information Technology in the SME sector and the factors that influence the business are discussed. SME industry in India has shown substantial growth over the past few years. The implementation of new technologies tends to offer better opportunities to the companies particularly for SME sector in India. However, there are a few challenges associated with technology adaptation that needs attention. This research is focused on improved business quality and responsiveness towards market opportunities while using the latest technologies available. This study is based on a review of research journals and articles including news magazines concerning current SME market situation in India. The current market scenario of Indian SMEs, as well as several policy interventions and new trends in the market were discussed.
Time-Frequency (t-f) distributions are frequently employed for analysis of new-born EEG signals because of their non-stationary characteristics. Most of the existing time-frequency distributions fail to concentrate energy for a multicomponent signal having multiple directions of energy distribution in the t-f domain. In order to analyse such signals, we propose an Adaptive Directional Time-Frequency Distribution (ADTFD). The ADTFD outperforms other adaptive kernel and fixed kernel TFDs in terms of its ability to achieve high resolution for EEG seizure signals. It is also shown that the ADTFD can be used to define new time-frequency features that can lead to better classification of EEG signals, e.g. the use of the ADTFD leads to 97.5% total accuracy, which is by 2% more than the results achieved by the other methods.
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
In this paper, a robust and perceptually transparent single-level and multi-level blind audio watermarking scheme using wavelets is proposed. A randomly generated binary sequence is used as a watermark, and wavelet function coding is used to embed the watermark sequence in audio signals. Multi-level watermarking is used to enhance payload capacity and can be used for a different level of security. The robustness of the scheme is evaluated by applying different attacks such as filtering, sampling rate alteration, compression, noise addition, amplitude scaling, and cropping. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed watermarking scheme is resilient to various attacks except cropping. Perceptual transparency of watermark is measured by using Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) basic model of ITU-R (PEAQ ITU-R BS.1387) on Speech Quality Assessing Material (SQAM) given by European Broadcasting Union (EBU). Average Objective Difference Grade (ODG) measured for this method is -0.067 and -0.080 for single-level and multi-level watermarked audio signals, respectively. In the proposed single-level digital audio watermarking scheme, the payload capacity is increased by 19.05% as compared to the single-level Chirp-Based Digital Audio Watermarking (CB-DAWM) scheme.
In order to identify the modal parameters of civil structures it is vital to distinguish the defective data from that of appropriate and accurate data. The defects in data may be due to various reasons like defects in the data collection, malfunctioning of sensors, etc. For this purpose Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) was engaged toenvisage the distribution of sensor’s data and to detect the malfunctioning with in the sensors. Then outlier analysis was performed to remove those data points which may disrupt the accurate data analysis. Then Data Driven Stochastic Sub-space Identification (DATA-SSI) was engaged to perform the modal parameter identification. In the end to validate the accuracy of the proposed method stabilization diagrams were plotted. Sutong Bridge, one of the largest span cable stayed bridge was used as a case study and the suggested technique was employed. The results obtained after employing the above mentioned techniques are very valuable, accurate and effective.
Flank wear of multilayer coated carbide (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN) insert in dry hard turning is studied. Machining under wet condition is also performed and flank wear is measured. A novel micro-channel is devised in the insert to deliver the cutting fluid directly at the tool-chip interface. Lower levels of cutting parameters yield the minimum flank wear which is significantly affected by cutting speed and feed rate. In comparison to dry and wet machining, insert with micro-channel reduces the flank wear by 48.87% and 3.04% respectively. The tool with micro-channel provides saving of about 87.5% in the consumption of volume of cutting fluid and energy.
Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) has been extensively used in aircraft turbine-engine components, aircraft structural components, aerospace fasteners, high performance automotive parts, marine applications, medical devices and sports equipment. However, wide-spread use of this alloy has limits because of difficulty to machine it. One of the major difficulties found during machining is development of poor quality of surface in the form of higher surface roughness. The present investigation has been concentrated on studying the effects of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness of the product during turning of titanium alloy. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to collect data for surface roughness. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the cutting parameters. The model equation is also formulated to predict surface roughness. Optimal values of cutting parameters were determined through response surface methodology. A 100% desirability level in the turning process for economy was indicated by the optimized model. Also, the predicted values that were obtained through regression equation were found to be in close agreement to the experimental values.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), an important food crop in the world, is susceptible to many fungal pathogens including Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum causing Fusarium wilt and early blight diseases. Mycoparasitic fungi like Trichoderma encode chitinases, cell wall degrading enzymes, with high antifungal activity against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, a binary vector harboring endochitinase gene of ~1,000 bp was constructed and used to transform potato nodes through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Out of several primary transformants, two transgenic potato lines were verified for transgene insertion and integration by Southern blot. In a pot experiment for Fusarium resistance, the transgenic potato lines didn’t show any symptoms of disease, instead they remained healthy post infection. The transgenic potato lines exhibited 1.5 fold higher mRNA expression of endochitinase at 7 days as compared to 0 day post fungus inoculation. It was evident that the mRNA expression decreased over days of inoculation but was still higher than at 0 day and remained stable upto 30 days post inoculation. Similarly, for A. solani infection assay, the mRNA expression of the endochitinase gene was 3 fold higher 7 days post inoculation compared to expression at 0 day. Although the expression decreased by1.2 fold during subsequent days post infection, it remained stable for 30 days, suggesting that protection in transgenic potato plants against fungal pathogens was achieved through an increase in endochitinase transcript.
Gabor Wigner Transform (GWT) is a composition of two time-frequency planes (Gabor Transform (GT) and Wigner Distribution (WD)), and hence GWT takes the advantages of both transforms (high resolution of WD and cross-terms free GT). In multi-component signal analysis where GWT fails to extract auto-components, the marriage of signal processing and image processing techniques proved their potential to extract autocomponents. The proposed algorithm maintained the resolution of auto-components. This work also shows that the Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT) domain is a powerful tool for signal analysis. Performance analysis of modified fractional GWT reveals that it provides a solution of cross-terms of WD and blurring of GT.
The influence of the refractory coating which is a mixture of silica flour and kaolin on the surface roughness of the plate castings produced using evaporative patterns had been considered in this work. The kaolin was used as a binder and ratio method was employed to form basis for the factorial design of experiment which led to nine runs of experiments. Methyl alcohol at 99% concentration was used as the carrier for the transfer of the coating to the surface of the patterns. Pouring temperature was observed as a process parameter alongside the mix ratios of the coating. Attempts were made to characterize the refractory coating by using two methods; differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction. Attempt was also made to characterize the casting material. Gating system design was done for the plate casting to determine the correct proportions of the gating parameters in order to construct the gating system properly to avoid turbulence during pouring of liquid metal. A digital profilometer was used to take the measurements of the surface roughness. It was observed that the mix ratio 90% silica flour-10% kaolin produced the lowest value of the surface roughness of the plate castings and had the lowest material loss in the DTA test. The pouring temperature of 650o C produced best casting.
A compact planar multiband antenna operating at 3.1 (S-band) /4.7/6.4/7.6 (C-band) /8.9/10.4/11.8 GHz (X-band) is presented. The proposed Microstrip Patch Antenna (MSPA) consists of a rectangular radiator in which an E-shaped slot is etched out and a microstrip feed line. The E-shaped slot modifies the total current path thereby making the antenna to operate at seven useful bands. No external impedance matching circuit is used and the impedance matching at these bands are solely achieved by using a rectangular microstrip feed line of length 10mm (L6) and width 2mm (W10). The antenna has a compact dimension of ���� × ���� × ��. �� ������ and exhibits S11<-10dB bandwidth of about 6.45% (3.2-3.0GHz), 8.5% (4.9-4.5GHz), 7.6% (6.7-6.2GHz), 3.9% (7.8-7.5GHz), 5.7% (9.1-8.6GHz), 1.2% (10.44-10.35GHz) and 2.2% (11.87-11.62GHz). The simulation analysis of the antenna is carried out by using HFSS v.13.0.
Recent developments in automation and technology have revolutionized the way products are made. It is directly seen in the evolution of part miniaturization in the sectors such as aerospace, electronics, biomedicine and medical implants. Micromachining is a promising technology to fulfill the need of miniaturization. A review has been done on the micromachining processes such as micro electric discharge machining (micro-EDM) and wire EDM (WEDM), micro electrochemical machining (micro-ECM). Recent literature were studied and categorized in terms of materials, process parameters, performances, product manufactured, and miniature product generation. Starting with brief introduction to micromachining, classifications and applications, technical aspects of discussions from the literature have been presented on key factors such as parameters and the response variables. Important aspects of recast layer, heat effected zone, micro-hardness, micro cracks, residual stress, etc., have been given. A special focus is given to the status of the research on microgear manufacturing. Comparison has been made between other conventional process suitable for micro-gear manufacturing and WEDM. The miniature gear machined by WEDM shows the defect-free microstructure, better surface finish, thin recast layer and improved gear quality parameters such as profile and pitch. Finally, the research gaps and future research directions have been presented.
This experimental study reveals the effects of CaF2, FeMn and NiO additions to the base fluxes on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the weld metal. The aim of this study is to develop suitable flux for mild steel for high tensile strength, impact strength and ductility. Bead on plate welds were made using submerged arc welding process. Mathematical model for percentage elongation and UTS of mild steel welds were made. The elements transfer to the welds have been correlated with the above mechanical performance characteristics. The effect of oxygen content on weld elongation and UTS also has been deduced. This study shows that CaF2 and NiO are the significant factors for tensile strength while FeMn is not significant for tensile strength. However, for elongation besides CaF2, the interaction of CaF2 and FeMn was also found significant. The effects of basicity index of the flux and carbon equivalent of the welds on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the welds have also been evaluated.
In the present study, butt joints of aluminum (Al) 8011-H18 and pure copper (Cu) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW) and the effect of plunge depth on surface morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The welds were produced by varying the plunge depth in a range from 0.1 mm to 0.25 mm. The defect-free joints were obtained when the Cu plate was fixed at the advancing side. It was found that less plunging depth gives better tensile properties compare to higher plunging depth because at higher plunging depth local thinning occurs at the welded region. Good tensile properties were achieved at plunge depth of 0.2 mm and the tensile strength was found to be higher than the strength of the Al (weaker of the two base metals). Microstructure study revealed that the metal close to copper side in the Nugget Zone (NZ) possessed lamellar alternating structure. However, mixed structure of Cu and Al existed in the aluminum side of NZ. Higher microhardness values were witnessed at the joint interfaces resulting from plastic deformation and the presence of intermetallics.