Knowledge of gravitational acceleration in metrology is required for traceable force and pressure calibrations, furthermore the redefinition of the SI base unit of kilogram requires absolute accomplishment of the gravitational acceleration. A direct free-fall gravimeter is developed using pneumatic grippers for test mass handling and a semi-rotary actuator for repositioning, i.e. automated re-launching. The catch and release system is powered by compressed air. This eliminates electric interferences around the test mass. A simplified method of signal capturing and processing is used on the designed gravimeter. A digital frequency trigger is implemented in the post processing algorithms to ensure that the signals are analysed from the identical effective height. The experimental results measured the site gravitational acceleration of 9.786043 ms��2 with a statistical uncertainty of #6;29 ms��2.
Wind constitutes one of the major environmental factors affecting the design and performance of built environment. Each country has its unique climatic wind conditions, and the way in which these are considered and implemented in the structural design, is important. An implementation or adoption of any new engineering design stipulations introduces a formidable challenge to the developers of the standards and the design profession. This has been experienced in some of the countries (e.g. the UK, Australia and the USA), where processes of modernising the outdated codifi cation took place in the past. Although both Poland and South Africa are currently at the early implementation stage of the new wind loading design stipulations, there is a major difference between the circumstances of the two countries. Poland, as an EU member state, has a compulsory obligation to adopt the new uniform standarisation requirements, within a stipulated time-frame. The South African code developers, after a thorough investigation process which will be highlighted in the paper, decided voluntarily to adopt the Eurocode as the primary model document.