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Abstract

The international community has conventions which regulate matters connected with the transport of cargoes by sea. In the second half o f the twentieth century an attempt was made to regulate multimodal transport. In 1980, under the auspices o f UNCTAD, a Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods was adopted. However, it has still not been implemented. It is a move in the direction of the complete regulation of the transport of goods by various means of transport. In 2001 the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) began work on a convention relating to international goods transport. The new convention is intended to replace the La Haye Regulations, the La Haye/Wisby regulations and the Hamburg regulations. The author of this paper considers that the application of unified principles to various means of transport maybe be unsuccessful. The project for the future convention applies to the transport of cargoes wholly or in part by sea. The author refers to maritime transport law and shows what changes the future convention is to introduce.
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Abstract

Classification societies are part of the world's safety system on the seas, and currently there are in excess of fifty in operation. Ten of the largest organizations belong to the International Association of Classification Societies. They determine classes and conduct reviews of about 90% of global merchant tonnage engaged in commercial activities throughout the world. The primary aim of the classification system is to improve the safety of human life and goods at sea by ensuring that vessel technical state is adequate. Vessel classification is based on an agreement entered into between the classification institute and the vessel owner. This agreement defines the obligations of the parties and sets forth regulations regarding responsibility. The country of the ship's flag is foremost responsible for safety at sea. Unfortunately, some countries fail at meeting this obligation and do not want or are unable to guarantee that their vessels meet international standards. In order to close this loophole, port inspections were put into force. Countries conducting port inspections of vessels should cooperate with the country of the ship’s flag and classification institutions.
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Abstract

The author challenges the views opposing ratification by Poland of United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (The Rotterdam Rules 2008). The ratification neither collides with the Vienna Convention on the Law o f the Treaties (VCLT1969) not it would put Poland at risk o f a dispute with states parties to Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage o f Goods by Road (CMR 1956). The Rotterdam Rules were drafted as part of the UN international legal system and have been scrutinized by the UN legal advisors. The Rotterdam Ruled do not affect the scope of application of CMR or any other convention on carriage of goods. Poland is yet to decide whether to ratify the Rotterdam Rules.
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