The paper presents the application of the newly developed method of the solution of nonlinear equations to the adaptive modelling and computer simulation. The approach is suitable when the system of equations can be arranged in such a way that it consists of a large number of linear equations and a smaller number of nonlinear equations. This situation occurs in the case of adaptive modelling of mechanical systems using finite elements or finite differences techniques. In this case the classical least square method becomes very effective. The paper presents several examples of the application of the method. A solution to the, so called, “black box” problem is also presented.
Aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) are the fastest developing materials for structural applications. Friction Stir Processing (FSP) has evolved as a promising surface composite fabrication technique mainly because it is an eco-friendly and solid-state process. A spurt in the interest of research community and a resulting huge research output makes it difficult to find relevant information to further the research with objectivity. To facilitate this, the present article addresses the current state of the art and development in surface metal matrix fabrication through FSP with a specific focus on ex-situ routes. The available literature has been carefully read and categorized to present effects of particle size, morphology and elemental composition. The effect of various reinforcements on development of different functional characteristics is also discussed. Effect of main FSP parameters on various responses is presented with objectivity. Based on the studied literature concluding summary is presented in a manner in which the literature becomes useful to the researchers working on this important technology.