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Abstract

Costs of Spatial Disorder for the Real Estate Market. The article discusses the problem of costs which the spatial disorder in Poland causes in the real estate market. It also draws attention to the likely future consequences of the current lack of spatial order for the domestic real estate market. The impact of spatial chaos on the functioning of this market was considered in terms of economic, social and environmental costs. In the empirical part of the paper, analyzing land turnover in the PoznaƄ agglomeration, the characteristics of the undeveloped real estate market in metropolitan areas in Poland were presented. At the same time, the negative effects of land trading in the situation of a flawed spatial planning system were emphasized. In addition, particular attention was paid to the common practice in Poland of excluding only part of the investment plots from agricultural use. At the same time, the urgent need to create the mechanisms of the actual protection of agricultural land within the agglomeration is emphasized.
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Abstract

Social and Economic Costs of Spatial Disorder in Agriculture. The main objective of the study was the identification of the phenomena of chaos in the structure and spatial organization of agriculture, that is the agrarian fragmentation of farms, exclusion of land from agricultural production in suburban zones and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. These processes cause a major increase in economic and social costs, which results in the loss of resources and spatial disorder in agriculture. An attempt was made to estimate the costs of these processes in economic, social and environmental terms. The economic dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is manifested by negative results in the production and consumption sphere related most often to high labour costs, and consequently to low incomes. The social dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is demonstrated by the effects of de-agrarization processes and deformation of social structures. De-agrarization means the processes of agricultural area reduction, extensification and fallowing as well as an increasingly limited significance of agriculture as a workplace and a reduction in the source of income by rural residents. A conducted analysis of spatial disorder in agriculture resulting from the lack of appropriate regulation and taxation systems as well as historical factors allowed determining direct and indirect results influencing the structure and spatial organization of agriculture. Direct results include: a chessboard pattern of agricultural land, marginalization of the agricultural function in rural areas which mostly applies to suburban zones, unregulated ownership of farmland, its unjustified designation for other purposes, a decrease in biodiversity in agriculture and fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. Indirect results include: an increase in the costs of agricultural production, expensive agricultural-installation plans, loss of direct payments, easement appurtenant, the emergence of human-environment conflicts and major transformations of the agricultural landscape in a suburban zone.
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