Height, frequency and spatial differentiation of atmospheric precipitation of the summer season for the period 1975-1982 are presented. Results of the respective investigations are compared with atmospheric precipitation in other areas of the western coast of Spitsbergen.
Ground temperature measurement results in main ecotopes of the Kaffiöyra coastal plain (Oscar II Land, northwestern Spitsbergen): sea beach, tundra and morainic plateau, are presented and discussed in the paper. The spatial distribution of thermal conditions is discussed with particular regard to temperature of the active surface and vertical gradients of temperature dependent on daytime and weather conditions.
The purpose of the paper is to analyze the issue of the relations between being consumers and being citizens in the consumer society. Many researchers point to deepening crisis of mature democracy and a decrease in social and civil participation, which entails most developed and developing countries, including Poland. The phenomenon present in a context of consumer society and its culture are often indicated among causes of this state. Based on the analysis of social changes in modern world, Zygmunt Bauman arrives at a conclusion that as an individualized entity, the consumer is an enemy of the citizen. The citizen and the consumer have different interests, hierarchies of values and ways of perceiving the world. The Zygmunt Bauman’s thesis is being analyzed in the paper on the basic of author’s research results. In the first part of the study, the typical characteristics of “model” members of a consumer society in the liquid modernity era are discussed (with reference to Bauman’s and other authors’ views). The way a consumer society affects the mentality of its members (the consumers) and their relations with groups, or larger communities (especially civil participation) is addressed. The second part is devoted to the issue of relations between being consumers and being citizens and is based on the research results of author’s research results. The relationships between consumer orientations of AMU students and chosen elements of their civic and social participation are discussed. Finally, the study is concluded with an attempt at explaining the results of research with reference to Bauman’s concept.
The article discusses the problem of province and smaller cities/towns within general political and social changes in critical times of Communists’ Poland and the role played by smaller communities in the occuring changes. The Author states that the influence range of central changes in the Communists’ party PZPR and other state organs in Warsow had a weaker feedback on the province and their regional pendants. The same concerned vivid social workers’ and independence movements, strikes and different struggles. The neighbourhood of two big centres: Szczecin and Gdańsk, the craddle of „Solidarność”, have had a rather low-rated effect on the changes in Koszalin (mainly influenced by Szczecin) and Słupsk (mainly influenced by Gdańsk) region. The both centres were active clusters of oppositional movements. Between them, as Marciniak stated, existed in the years 1956–1981 a precipice, a ‘sociological vacuum’, conditioned mainly by a lack of strong academic, intellectual and religious circles.
The oceans are the second largest natural absorber of carbon dioxide emissions. One of the methods contemplated to enhance the processis fertilization of seawater with iron. The fertilization stimulates the growth of phytoplankton, the main biological agent responsible for the carbon dioxide sequestration processes by seawater. As phytoplankton absorbs the gas it transports it toward the seabed, thus making the ocean a natural carbon sink. Significance of this issue is reflected by the number of parties to the Kyoto Protocol (1997) to the United Nations Framework Convention for the Climate Change (UNFCCC 1992). The signatories include 194 states and the European Union to the UNFCCC and 192 states and the European Union to the Kyoto Protocol. The Author provides legal analysis on ocean iron fertilization. The issue sparks considerable controversy from the standpoint of law, science and environmental protection. Since iron fertilization has been developed only recently, no thorough evaluation is possible. The Author advocates cautious approach and recommends limiting its use to scientific endeavors.
The article explains marine biodiversity from the standpoint of international law and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS 1994). Currently there are dozens of patent applications associated with genes of marine origin outside countries’ jurisdiction. The claims come from developed countries, i.e. the United States, Germany, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Norway. All countries, including landlocked ones, are free to conduct scientific exploration of the sea. The key areas of application of marine genetic resources include pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and general industry. Despite some controversy patent protection over natural world has long history. In 1873 Louis Pasteur obtained a patent for yeast, and adrenalin and insulin were patented in early 20th century. In the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty (1980) the United States Supreme Court held that a live, human made microorganism is patentable subject matter.
This article presents a detailed portrait of Walenty Wolski and his lifetime achievements based on a general collection of sources, including parish record books, memoirs and economic documents. The author describes the life of Walenty Wolski, his education, various interests and his involvement in the maintaining of his manor in Royal Pomerania, which was presented against the social and economic background of this province after its annexation to the Prussian State. Wolski, the landlord, expressed his vivid interest in scholarly life and books. He was educated in the humanities, when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth still existed, and wanted to save many of the artefacts from the former glory of his home-country. He also produced several of his own works, including a description of the war between Prussia and Napoleon in 1806-1810. He started to collect Polish books, manuscripts and graphics as early as the 1770s. It is worth mentioning that many of them were printed in the seventeenth century. The author described the second-hand book market and prices of the books in details. The Wolskis’ private library consisted of an impressive collection of portrait graphics (ca. 12.000 pieces). In 1819-1822 Wolski himself produced from them 32 albums. In doing this he preceded other collectors, such as J. M. Ossoliński, T. Działyński and E. Raczyński. After Wolski’s death, his heirs donated or sold off his collection to various persons or institutions. Many of them were purchased by T. Działyński for the Kórnik Library, where they remain preserved till today. As many as 16 albums of the graphics are now kept in the National Gallery in Poznań. The description of the fate of Wolski’s library certainly contributes to the history of Polish books and their circulation over the centuries.
In this paper methods and their examination results for automatic segmentation and parameterization of vessels based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the retina are presented. We present three strategies for morphologic image processing of a fundus image reconstructed from OCT scans. A specificity of initial image processing for fundus reconstruction is analysed. Then, the parameterization step is performed based on the vessels segmented with the proposed algorithm. The influence of various methods on the vessel segmentation and fully automatic vessel measurement is analysed. Experiments were carried out with a set of 3D OCT scans obtained from 24 eyes (12 healthy volunteers) with the use of an Avanti RTvue OCT device. The results of automatic vessel segmentation were numerically compared with those prepared manually by the medical doctor experts.