Thermodynamic assessment of the phase stability of the solid solutions of superionic alloys of the Ag3SBr1-xClx(I) system in the concentration range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 and temperature range 370–395 K was performed. Partial functions of silver in the alloys of solid solution were used as the thermodynamic parameters. The values of partial thermodynamic functions were obtained with the use of the electromotive force method. Potential-forming processes were performed in electrochemical cells. Linear dependence of the electromotive force of cells on temperature was used to calculate the partial thermodynamic functions of silver in the alloys. The serpentine-like shape of the thermodynamic functions in the concentration range 0–4 is an evidence of the metastable state of solid solution. The equilibrium phase state of the alloys is predicted to feature the formation of the intermediate phase Ag3SBr0.76Cl0.24, and the solubility gap of the solid solution ranges of Ag3SBr0.76Cl0.24and Ag3SBr.
In the literature the occurrence of thymomas in goats varies from 0.7 to 25%, depending on the study. Therefore the current investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of thymoma in goats in Poland. Between 2007 and 2018 at the Warsaw Veterinary Faculty 399 goat autopsies and ultrasound examinations of the chest in other 145 goats were performed. Mediastinal tumors were diagnosed during post mortem examination in 2 goats. Additionally, ultrasound examination of the chest revealed a large mass close to the heart in the thoracic cavity in 1 case. This goat was euthanized and an autopsy confirmed a mediastinal tumor. Histopathological examination, with immunohistochemical tests to anti cytokeratin, p63 and p40 confirmed thymomas in all three cases. In our study thymomas were found in 0.5% (95% CI: 0.1% to 1.8%) of examined goats and they represented the most common malignancy in this species.
We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.