Electric energy meters are designed to account energy under sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal conditions, because both, old and new standards for energy meters require testing their accuracy under different conditions. The latest EN 50470 standard increases the range of meter testing under nonsinusoidal conditions, introducing new shapes of test signals such as the phase fired waveform or the burst fired waveform. This paper discusses calibration problems of electronic revenue energy meters for direct connection and for connection through current transformers, and it proposes a new calibration procedure which reproduces normal operating conditions better: three-phase configurations of measurement systems, load range during meter testing or shapes of test signals. Recently, modern Electrical Power Standards, also known as Power Calibrators, enable automatic testing of various types of electrical devices, including electricity meters in their normal operating conditions. This article presents examples of single and multi position fully automatic test systems, which employ Power/Energy Calibrator from Poland as the precision source with programmed waveforms of three phase voltages up to 560 V and currents up to 120 A conforming to EN 50470, or with random waveforms generated by PC software random wave generator. Measurement uncertainty of the energy meters under different nonsinusoidal conditions using a test system with reference to accuracy of the power calibrator or to the reference meter, are discussed. Comparative analysis of test results for different shapes of voltage and current signals is presented in the conclusions of this paper.
Władysław Łuszczkiewicz was an art historian, artist, pedagogue, an outstanding personality of nineteenth-century Krakow, active in many fields. He was a professor at the Cracow School of Fine Arts, and in the years 1857–1873 and 1893–1895 he was the headmaster of this school. He was a teacher of many artists, of which it is enough to mention only the greatest — Jan Matejko, Stanisław Wyspiański, Józef Mehoffer and Artur Grottger. In 1883, Łuszczkiewicz was appointed the director of the National Museum in Krakow. He managed this institution until his death, that is until 1900. Among the oldest source materials belonging to the Archive of the National Museum in Krakow, we can find the correspondence of former students of the School of Fine Arts addressed directly to their former teacher — Professor Łuszczkiewicz, who was at this time the director of the National Museum in Krakow. Based on selected letters, the article presents their interesting subject matter and presents the issues in which the students wrote to their Master. The attempt to describe the relation between former students and their master revealed in letters will be made.
The paper presents an analysis of factors influencing the accuracy of reproduction of geometry of the vertebrae and the intervertebral disc of the lumbar motion segment for the purpose of designing of an intervertebral disc endoprosthesis. In order to increase the functionality of the new type of endoprostheses by a better adjustment of their structure to the patient’s anatomical features, specialist software was used allowing the processing of the projections of the diagnosed structures. Recommended minimum values of projection features were determined in order to ensure an effective processing of the scanned structures as well as other factors affecting the quality of the reproduction of 3D model geometries. Also, there were generated 3D models of the L4-L5 section. For the final development of geometric models for disc and vertebrae L4 and L5 there has been used smoothing procedure by cubic free curves with the NURBS technique. This allows accurate reproduction of the geometry for the purposes of identification of a spatial shape of the surface of the vertebrae and the vertebral disc and use of the model for designing of a new endoprosthesis, as well as conducting strength tests with the use of finite elements method.
A common problem encountered in hydraulic valves is a progressing deterioration of tightness of their water flow cutting-off seats. The seats are provided usually with a copper-alloy insert joined mechanically with cast-iron valve housing. The problem of unreliability of such joints can be solved by providing surface of the seat with a coating, deposited with the use of HVOF method and resistant to abrasive and cavitation wear. The tests were carried out for a sealing-draining seat insert made of CuZn39Pb2Al brass used to date and a specimen taken from the cast-iron valve housing which was the substrate for a plasma-sprayed coating of powder containing 86.1% Cr, 7.2% Ni, and 6.7% C. The coating, 345 ± 15 μm thick, was characterized with good quality of bonding with cast-iron substrate and high compactness of the material. The cavitation wear test on materials used in the study were carried out with the use of Vibra-Cell ultrasonic liquid processor (Sonics) equipped with a piezoelectric probe operating at the frequency of 20 kHz. Based on profilograms taken along a line crossing centers of cavitation craters, measurements of the height parameter Rt, and microscopic observations of surfaces it has been found that the coating plasma-sprayed onto substrate of nodular cast iron demonstrated higher resistance to cavitation compared to copper-alloy inserts used so far in cast-iron hydraulic valves. Cavitation craters on the material used typically for valve seats to date were more distinctly outlined and deeper compared to craters observed on the coating. Larger were also sizes of local tear-outs which resulted in larger difference between the peaks line and the valleys line.
The paper deals with the issue of potential for improvement of resistance of wood chip fine grinders to abrasive wear by providing them with WCCoCr coating applied with the use of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The study focused on establishing parameters of the technological process of spraying a 250–270 μm thick coating onto surface of ductile cast iron castings used to date as grinder linings. The presented data include results of microstructure examination, chemical composition analysis, HV hardness measurements, and scratch tests for both previous and new variant of linings. The obtained scratch test results indicate that the material of the coating is characterized with definitely lower susceptibility to scratching. The scratch made on coating was 75–84 μm wide and 7.2–8.2 μm deep, while the scratch on cast iron was distinctly wider (200–220 μm) and deeper (8.5–12.8 μm). In case of cast iron, the range of variability in scratch width and depth was definitely larger. This can be explained with large difference in hardness of individual components of microstructure of cast iron and significantly larger plastic deformation of cast iron compared to the coating revealed in the course of indenter motion over surfaces of the two materials. It has been found that application of WCCoCr coating offered better resistance of lining surfaces to scratching which can be considered a rationale for undertaking in-service tests.
The paper discusses the possibility of improving resistance of heat exchangers made of gray cast iron with flake graphite to hightemperature corrosion by providing them with metallic coatings. A metallic coating containing 76.9% Ni, 19.8% Cr, 1.7% Si, 0.9% Fe, and 0.9% Mn was applied by means of the plasma spraying method and subjected to cyclically variable thermal loads in the atmosphere of solid fuels combustion products (oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and sodium). In a 30-day thermal load test held at temperature 500°C it has been found that thickness of the metallic coating decreased from the initial (240 ± 6) μm to (231 ± 6) μm. The depth to which sulfur, chlorine, and sodium penetrated the coating was about 30 μm. Increased oxygen content occurred along the whole coating depth. In the coating area adjacent to the substrate surface, the content was twice as high compared to this observed in the initial coating material. Although presence of oxygen was found within the whole depth of the coating, i.e. (231 ± 6) μm, no signs of susceptibility of the sprayed metallic layer to separation from substrate of gray cast iron with flake graphite were found.
The paper presents results of a study on the effect of the flux density of heat carried away for the remelting area to substrate in the course of surface remelting with concentrated heat stream on values of structural parameters λ1D and λ2D of α(Al) phase dendrites in C355 alloy. The remeltings were made with the use of GTAW method, at arc current intensity I = 200 A and concentrated heat stream scanning speed vs = 200, 400, 600, and 800 mm/min. The used protective gas was argon supplied at rate of 20 l/min. It has been found that the increase of the rate of scanning with concentrated heat stream results in a change of the remelting-substrate separation surface shape consisting in reduction of the remelting width and depth. This increases the value of the flux density of heat transmitted from the remelting area to substrate which in turn acts in favor of reduction of structural parameters λ1D and λ2D characterizing α(Al) phase dendrites in C355 alloy.
Biocompatible coatings produced on the basis of the chemically extracted natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) from the animal bones were deposited using multiplex method comprising glow discharge nitriding (GDN) of the titanium alloy substrate and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of HAp on the formerly fabricated titanium nitride layer (TiN). The TiN interlayer plays an important role improving adhesion of HAp to substrate and preserves the direct contact of the tissue with metallic substrate in the case of possible cracking of HAp coating. Surface morphology of deposited layers, crystallographic texture and residual stress were studied in relation to the type of laser applied to ablation (Nd:YAG or ArF excimer), laser repetition, temperature of substrate and atmosphere in the reactive chamber.
Boron nitride thin layers were produced by means of the pulsed laser deposition technique from hexagonal boron nitride target. Two types of laser i.e. Nd:YAG with Q-switch as well as KrF coupled with RF generator were used. Influence of deposition parameters on surface morphology, phase composition as well as mechanical properties is discussed. Results obtained using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy are presented. Micromechanical properties measured during microindentation, scratch and wear tests are also shown.
The study was carried out on 50 human lower legs obtained during autopsies (KBET: 122.6120.315.2016). The anatomy of the joint was studied using classical anatomical description methods. Based also on literature we have reviewed the current knowledge on the inferior tibiofibular joint blood supply considering the important clinically aspect - vascular density. Authors of this paper postulate relatively low vascular density of the region described and potential worse condition for healing in case of injury or after surgical procedures performed. We also postulate that ligament screws should be positioned with special respect to time limit which enables proper healing of the syndesmosis.