The paper presents results of assessment of the unit pressure force within the refractory material volume in the course press-moulding of stampings for refractory precast shapes. The force was evaluated with the use of physical simulation of deformation undergone by lead balls placed in the raw refractory mass subjected to pressing in a metal die. To determine the value of unit pressure force applied to the aggregate grains in the course of stamping press-moulding, physical model of deformation of a sphere induced by the uniaxial stress state was used.
NC11 steel, in view of the specificity of its manufacturing process, is characterised with band-like orientation of carbides. Depending on the direction of cutting the material for the inserts out of commercially available steel products, carbide bands can be oriented in parallel or perpendicularly to the direction in which aggregate grains move in the process of pressing stampings. It has been found that in case of scratches made in direction perpendicular to carbide bands, depth of the scratches is less than this observed when scratches are made in direction coinciding with prevailing orientation of carbide precipitates.
The aim of the study is to present cycling as an active form of tourism in the context of the motivation of people cultivating it – in particular residents of the Municipality of Radom. The work indicates the essence and importance of cycling tourism, taking into account its types and infrastructure. Factors and trends influencing the development of cycling tourism – promoting a healthy lifestyle were discussed. Also presented are the results of research on the motivation of moving residents of the Municipality of Radom using the bike in individual age groups.