In the last 20 years, a new meshless computational method has been developed that is called peridynamics. The method is based on the parallelized code. The subject of the study is the deformation of open-cell copper foams under dynamic compression. The computational model of virtual cellular material is considered. The skeleton structure of such a virtual cellular material can be rescaled according to requirements. The material of the skeleton is assumed as the oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper. The OFHC copper powder can be applied in additive manufacturing to produce the open-cell multifunctional structures, e.g., crush resistant heat exchangers, heat capacitors, etc. In considered peridynamic computations the foam skeleton is described with the use of an elastic-plastic model with isotropic hardening. The dynamic process of compression and crushing with different impact velocities is simulated.
This article presents the research results on impact of the method of polycrystalline graphene layers separation from the growth substrate on the obtained carbon material quality. The studies were carried out on graphene sheets obtained by metallurgical method on a liquid metal substrate (HSMG® graphene). The graphene was separated using chemical etching method or the electrochemical delamination method, by separating by means of electrolysis. During electrolysis, hydrogen is emitted on a graphene-covered of cathode (metal growth substrate) as a result of the voltage applied. The graphene layer breaks away from metallic substrate by gas accumulation between them. The results from these separation processes were evaluated by means of different tools, such as SEM, TEM and AFM microscopy as well as Raman Spectroscopy. In summary, the majority of analyses indicate that the graphene obtained as a result of hydrogen delamination possesses higher purity, smaller size and number of defects, its surface is smooth and less developed after the transfer process to the target substrate.
The subject of the study are alumina foams produced by gelcasting method. The results of micro-computed tomography of the foam samples are used to create the numerical model reconstructing the real structure of the foam skeleton as well as the simplified periodic open-cell structure models. The aim of the paper is to present a new idea of the energy-based assessment of failure strength under uniaxial compression of real alumina foams of various porosity with use of the periodic structure model of the same porosity. Considering two kinds of cellular structures: the periodic one, for instance of fcc type, and the random structure of real alumina foam it is possible to justify the hypothesis, computationally and experimentally, that the same elastic energy density cumulated in the both structures of the same porosity allows to determine the close values of fracture strength under compression. Application of finite element computations for the analysis of deformation and failure processes in real ceramic foams is time consuming. Therefore, the use of simplified periodic cell structure models for the assessment of elastic moduli and failure strength appears very attractive from the point of view of practical applications.
The fundamental concepts of nano and quantum systems of informatics have been presented. The nanotechnological processes taking place in biological systems of informatics have been discussed in terms of informatics. Presented analysis shows that the application of nanotechnologies in the technical informatic systems enables realization of processes for formation of products and objects with self-replication feature, similarly to the processes existing in biological informatic systems. It seems also that the quantum technologies enable further miniaturization of the technical systems of informatics as well as make the execution time of some computing processes like, e.g. Shor's and Grover's algorithms, shorter.
Animals as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation could become a backup solution for the growing shortage of human donors. The presence of human xenoreactive anti- bodies directed against Galα1,3Gal antigens on the cell surface of a pig donor triggers the activa- tion of the complement leading to a hyperacute reaction. The development of genetic engineer- ing techniques has enabled the modification of genomes by knocking in and/or knocking out genes. In this paper, we report the generation of modified pigs with ZFN mediated disruption of the GGTA1 gene encoding the enzyme responsible for synthesis of Galα1,3Gal antigens. ZFN plasmids designed to target the exon 9 region of the pig GGTA1 gene encoding the catalytic domain were injected into the pronuclei of fertilized egg cells. Among 107 piglets of the F0 gene- ration analyzed, one female with 9-nt deletion in exon 9 of the GGTA1 gene was found. 13 of 33 piglets of the F1 generation represented the +/- GGTA1 genotype and 2 of 13 F2 piglets repre- sented the -/- GGTA1 genotype. No changes in the animals’ behavior, phenotype or karyotype were observed. Analysis confirmed heredity of the trait in all animals. A complex functional analysis of the modified animals, including flow cytometry, human serum cytotoxicity test and immunohistochemical detection, was performed to estimate the phenotype effect of genetic modification and this indicated an efficient GGTA1 knock-out in modified pigs.
The article presents the results of studies on the efficacy of water desalination (i.e. Elimination of NaCl ions from the solution) using graphene-polyamide composite membranes. The membrane used for filtration consists of a monolayer of polycrystalline graphene on a porous polyamide carrier support (nylon 66). The degree of desalination for an aqueous NaCl solution percolated through the membrane was 18%. In the future this type of membrane may replace the currently used reverse osmosis membranes.