An integrated Z-source inverter for the single-phase single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic system is proposed in this paper. The inverter integrates three functional blocks including maximum-power-point-tracking, step-up/down DC-side voltage and output grid-connected current. According to the non-minimum-phase characteristic presented in DC-side and the functional demands of the system, two constant-frequency sliding-mode controllers with integral compensation are proposed to guarantee the system robustness. By using two controllers, the effects caused by the non-minimum-phase characteristic are mitigated. Under the circumstance of that the input voltage or the grid-connected current changes suddenly, the notches/protrusions following the over-shoot/ under-shoot of the DC-bus voltage are eliminated. The quality of grid-connected current is ensured. Also, a small-signal modelling method is employed to analyze the close-loop system. A 300W prototype is built in the laboratory. A solar-array simulator (SAS) is used to verify the systematic responses in the experiment. The correctness and validity of the inverter and proposed control algorithm are proved by simulation and experimental results.
A novel phase shift full bridge (PSFB) converter with voltage-doubler and decoupling integrated magnetics in photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed. Considering the demand that the output voltage is higher than the input voltage in PV systems, the voltage-doubler is added to achieve higher voltage gain compared with the traditional PSFB. In order to avoid current oscillation caused by the voltage-doubler and obtain the wide zero voltage switching (ZVS) ranges, an external inductor is imposed on the circuit. Especially, to obtain much higher power density, the external inductor and transformer are integrated into one magnetic core. The operation and voltage gain of proposed converter are analyzed. Also, in order to reveal the effects the integrated magnetics gives to the converter, the decoupling condition and the expression of leakage inductor of integrated magnetics are obtained in detail. Finally a 100 W prototype converter is made and the experimental results are given to verify the analysis.
Evolutionary computing and algorithms are well known tools of optimisation that are utilized for various areas of analogue electronic circuits design and diagnosis. This paper presents the possibility of using two evolutionary algorithms - genetic algorithm and evolutionary strategies - for the purpose of analogue circuits yield and cost optimisation. Terms: technologic and parametric yield are defined. Procedures of parametric yield optimisation, such as a design centring, a design tolerancing, a design centring with tolerancing, are introduced. Basics of genetic algorithm and evolutionary strategies are presented, differences between these two algorithms are highlighted, certain aspects of implementation are discussed. Effectiveness of both algorithms in parametric yield optimisation has been tested on several examples and results have been presented. A share of evolutionary algorithms computation cost in a total optimisation cost is analyzed.
The aim of this article is to identify opportunities for using synergies obtained by incorporation of the two methods of management: Lean Management and Agile Management on the example of the process of column concreting. Despite the seemingly contradictory assumptions the two concepts complement each other in analysed example. The strategy is based on using the idea of "one piece flow" in accordance with the Lean Management which led to a reduction of costs due to increased turnover of formwork. At the same time the success of the project resulted in a significant dependence on the ability to provide a rapid response to changing conditions during in the maturation of concrete (depending on weather conditions, which can be expected on the basis of projections having different reliability). The simultaneous use of Lean and Agile Management allowed to achieve positive results for different scenarios of environment impact on the analysed process.
In the dissertation it has been shown, that so called „time-thermal treatment” (TTT) of the alloy in liquid state, as overheating the metal with around 250o C above the Tliq. and detaining it in this temperature for around 30 minutes, improves the mechanical properties (HB, Rm, R0,2). It was ascertained, that overheating the AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy aids the modification, resulting with microcrystalline structure. Uniform arrangement of the Si primeval crystals in the warp, and α(Al) solution type, supersaturated with alloying elements present in the base content (Cu, Mg) assures not only increased durability in the ambient temperature, but also at elevated temperature (250o C), what is an advantage, especially due to the use in car industry.
In the dissertation it has been shown, that so called “time-thermal treatment” (TTT) of the alloy in liquid state as overheating the metal with around 250o C above Tliq. and detailing it in temperature for 30 to 40 minutes has the influence on changing the crystallization parameters (Tliq., TEmin. , TEmax., TE(Me), TSol.). It was ascertained, that overheating the AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy substantially above Tliq. results with microcrystalline structure. Evenly distributed in the eutectic warp primeval silicon crystals and supersaturated with alloying additives of base content (Cu, Mg, Fe) of α(Al) solution, ensures not only increase durability in ambient temperature, but also at elevated temperature (250o C), what due to it’s use in car industry is an advantage.
The chosen, typical causes of quality defects of cast-iron „alphin” rings embedded in aluminum cast are being presented in this paper. Diffusive joint of those inserts with the pistons casts is being used, due to extreme work conditions of destructive influence of the fuel mix and variable thermo-mechanical loads, which reign in the combustion motor working chamber.
The FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) method consists in analysis of failure modes and evaluation of their effects based on determination of cause-effect relationships for formation of possible product or process defects. Identified irregularities which occur during the production process of piston castings for internal combustion engines were ordered according to their failure rates, and using Pareto-Lorenz analysis, their per cent and cumulated shares were determined. The assessments of risk of defects occurrence and their causes were carried out in ten-point scale of integers, while taking three following criteria into account: significance of effects of the defect occurrence (LPZ), defect occurrence probability (LPW) and detectability of the defect found (LPO). A product of these quantities constituted the risk score index connected with a failure occurrence (a so-called “priority number,” LPR). Based on the observations of the piston casting process and on the knowledge of production supervisors, a set of corrective actions was developed and the FMEA was carried out again. It was shown that the proposed improvements reduce the risk of occurrence of process failures significantly, translating into a decrease in defects and irregularities during the production of piston castings for internal combustion engines.
The purpose of this study is to identify relationships between the values of the fluidity obtained by computer simulation and by an experimental test in the horizontal three-channel mould designed in accordance with the Measurement Systems Analysis. Al-Si alloy was a model material. The factors affecting the fluidity varied in following ranges: Si content 5 wt.% – 12 wt.%, Fe content 0.15 wt.% – 0.3wt. %, the pouring temperature 605°C-830°C, and the pouring speed 100 g · s–1 – 400 g · s–1. The software NovaFlow&Solid was used for simulations. The statistically significant difference between the value of fluidity calculated by the equation and obtained by experiment was not found. This design simplifies the calculation of the capability of the measurement process of the fluidity with full replacement of experiments by calculation, using regression equation.
The aim of the paper is to revalorizate of the Szewalski binary vapour cycle by analysing thermodynamical and operational parameters of this cycle. This was carried out by accessible numerical computational flow mechanics codes using the step-by-step modeling of separate elements. The binary vapour cycle is providing steam as the working fluid in the high temperature part of the cycle, while another fluid - a low boiling point fluid of low specific volume - as the working substance substituting conventional steam over the temperature range represented by the low pressure steam expansion. The steam cycle for reference conditions has been assumed. Four working fluids in the low temperature part of the binary cycle such as propane, isobutane, ethanol and ammonia have been investigated.
Probabilistic analysis of a space truss is presented in the paper. Reliability of such a structure is sensitive to geometrical and material imperfections. The objective of this paper is to present a variant of the point estimate method (PEM) to determine mean values and standard deviations of limit loads of engineering structures. The main advantage presented by this method is the small number of sample calculations required to obtain estimators of investigated parameters. Thus the method is straightforward, requiring only preliminaries of probability theory. This approach is illustrated by limit state analysis of a space truss, considering geometric and material imperfections. The calculations were performed for different random models, so the influence of random parameters on the limit load of the truss can be determined. A realistic snow load was imposed.