The aim of the work is to closely examine the permeating of Pomeranian coins, struck by the last representatives of the House of Griffins into the Polish monetary market and to determine the scale of the process. The principal research method is the examination of the finds containing Pomeranian coins deposited in Poland, complemented with the analysis of written sources. The exploration of the numismatic material allowed the determination of both the number of Pomeranian coins in Polish deposits (109 certain and 15 probable coins of the last five representatives of the House of Griffins in 49 deposits) and the frequency of individual types of Pomeranian coins (with the absolute prevalence of poltoraks and debased groschen). It also helped to arrive at the conclusion as to the direction of the influx of the Pomeranian coins into Poland (while in the second decade or the first half of the third decade of the 17th century the Silesian route may have been prevalent, from the third decade of the 17th century the northern direction seems to have been more probable). The analysis of political and economic relationships made it possible to explain the absence of Pomeranian coins in hoards from the Poland-Brandenburg borderland and the area at the border between Greater Poland and the Duchy of Pomerania.
In this paper the influence of high power airborne ultrasound on drying biological material (Lobo apple) properties is considered. Apple samples were dried convectively at 75 ◦C and air flow of 2 m/s with and without ultrasound assist at 200W. During experiments, sun-drenched and not sun-drenched part of fruits were considered separately to show, how the maturity of the product influences dry material properties. Dried apple crisps in a size of small bars were subjected to compression tests during which acoustic emission (AE) was used. Analysis of AE and strength test results shows that correlations between received acoustic signals and sensory attributes (crispness, brittleness) of dried apples can be found. It was noted that ultrasound improved fruit brittleness in comparison with pure convective processes, where fruit maturity determines a kind of destruction and behaviour of dried apple crisps.
Particles of the Fe-Al type (less than 50 µm in diameter) were sprayed onto the 045 steel substrate by means of the detonation method. The TEM, SAED and EDX analyses revealed that the Fe-Al particles have been partially melted in the experiment of coating formation. Particle undergone melting even within about 80% of its volume. Therefore, solidification of the melted part of particles was expected. Solidification differed significantly due to a large range of chemical composition of applied particles (from 15 at.% Al up to 63 at.% Al). A single particle containing 63 at.% Al was subjected to the detailed analysis, only. The TEM / SAED techniques revealed in the solidified part of particle three sub-layers: an amorphous phase, A ε , periodically situated FeAl + Fe2Al5 phases, and a non-equilibrium phase, Nε . A hypothesis dealing with the inter-metallic phases formation in such a single particle of the nominal composition 0 N = 0.63 is presented. At first, the solid / liquid system is treated as an interconnection: substrate liquid nonmelted particle part / / . Therefore, it is suggested that the solidification occurs simultaneously in two directions: towards a substrate and towards a non-melted part of particle. The solidification mechanism is referred to the Fe-Al meta-stable phase diagram. It is shown that the melted part of particle solidifies rapidly according to the phase diagram of meta-stable equilibrium and at a significant deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium.
The reports of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicate that the growing emission of greenhouse gases, produced from the combustion of fossil fuels, mainly carbon dioxide, leads to negative climate changes. Therefore, the methods of mitigating the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere, especially of carbon dioxide, are being sought. Numerous studies are focused on so-called geological sequestration, i.e. injecting carbon dioxide to appropriate geological strata or ocean waters. One of the methods, which are not fully utilized, is the application of appropriate techniques in agriculture. The plant production in agriculture is based on the absorption of carbon dioxide in the photosynthesis process. Increasing the plant production directly leads to the absorption of carbon dioxide. Therefore, investigation of carbon dioxide absorption by particular crops is a key issue. In Poland, ca. 7.6 mln ha of cereals is cultivated, including: rye, wheat, triticale, oat and barley. These plants absorb approximately 23.8 mln t C annually, including 9.8 mln t C/yr in grains, 9.4 mln t C/yr in straw and 4.7 mln t C/yr in roots. The China, these cereals are cultivated on the area over 24 mln ha and absorb 98.9 mln t C/yr, including 55 mln tC/yr in grains, 36 in straw, and 7.9 mln t C/yr in roots. The second direction for mitigating the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere involves substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to deliver primary energy. Cultivation of winter cereals as cover crops may lead to the enhancement of carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere in the course of their growth. Moreover, the produced biomass can be used for energy generation.