The aim of the hereby paper is to present the developed model of determining the volume and surface porosity based on the main fraction of polifractional materials, its experimental verification and utilisation for the interpretation of effects accompanying the formation of a moulding sand apparent density, porosity and permeability in the blowing processes of the core and moulds technology.
A proper management of sand grains of moulding sands requires knowing basic properties of the spent matrix after casting knocking out. This information is essential from the point of view of the proper performing the matrix recycling process and preparing moulding sands with reclaimed materials. The most important parameter informing on the matrix quality – in case of moulding sands with organic binders after casting knocking out – is their ignition loss. The methodology of estimating ignition loss of spent moulding sands with organic binder– after casting knocking out - developed in AGH, is presented in the paper. This method applies the simulation MAGMA software, allowing to determine this moulding sand parameter already at the stage of the production preparation.
Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimation of the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrix technological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrix quality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.
The paper presents the idea of the integrated recycling system of used moulding sands with organic resins. A combination of the method of forecasting averaged ignition loss values of moulding sands after casting and defining the range of necessary matrix reclamation treatments in order to obtain its full recycling constitutes the basics of this process. The results of own investigations, allowing to combine ignition loss values of spent moulding sands after casting knocking out with amounts of dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation treatment of such sands, were utilized in the system.
Core sands for blowing processes, belong to these sands in which small amount of the applied binding material has the ability of covering the sand matrix surface in a way which - at relatively small coating thickness - allows to achieve the high strength. Although the deciding factor constitute, in this aspect, strength properties of a binder, its viscosity and ability to moisten the matrix surface, the essential meaning for the strength properties of the prepared moulding sand and the mould has the packing method of differing in sizes sand grains with the coating of the binding material deposited on their surfaces. The knowledge of the influence of the compaction degree of grains forming the core on the total contact surface area can be the essential information concerning the core strength. Forecasting the strength properties of core sands, at known properties of the applied chemically hardened binder and the quartz matrix, requires certain modifications of the existing theoretical models. They should be made more realistic with regard to assumptions concerning grain sizes composition of quartz sands and the packing structure deciding on the active surface area of the contacts between grains of various sizes and - in consequence - on the final strength of cores.
The results of investigations of the influence of the matrix grain sizes on properties of cores made by the blowing method are presented in the hereby paper. Five kinds of matrices, differing in grain size compositions, determined by the laser diffraction method in the Analysette 22NanoTec device, were applied in investigations. Individual kinds of matrices were used for making core sands in the Cordis technology. From these sands the shaped elements, for determining the apparent density of compacted sands and their bending strength, were made by the blowing method. The shaped elements (cores) were made at shooting pressures being 3, 4 and 5 atn. The bending strength of samples were determined directly after their preparation and after the storing time of 1 hour.
The results of model investigations of the influence of the blowing process selected parameters on the distribution of the compaction of the core made by the blowing method, are presented in the hereby paper. These parameters were: shooting pressure, shooting hole diameter, amount and distribution of deaerating holes. Investigations were performed using the horizontal core box of the cuboidal cavity and the same core box into which inner inserts were introduced. These inserts were dividing the primary volume into three sectors differing in their direction, introduction conditions and the character of the core sand flow. As the compaction measure the apparent sand density was assumed. The density was determined in five measuring points in case of uniform cores, and in three measuring points in case of cores obtained in the core box with three separated sectors. The apparent density of the compacted core sand in the core box cavity was determined on the basis of the measurements of masses and volumes of samples cut-out from the determined core places by means of the measuring probe. Investigations were performed at three values of the working pressure equal 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6MPa for two diameters of the shooting hole: 10 and 20 mm. During tests the core box deaeration, controlled by an activisation of the determined number of deaerating vents placed in the core box, was also subjected to changes.
The results of investigations of sand shooting into the core box are presented in the hereby paper. The investigations concern the formation of the diphase sand-air flux, its motion, flowing and compaction in the cavity during the core forming. Conditions deciding on the course of individual phases of the process are discussed with taking into consideration the influence of such factors as: the shot pressure, shooting hole diameter, number and distribution of deaerating vents in experimental core boxes (of a single cavity and of multi cavities) on the core sand compaction state. Investigations were performed by means of the modernised experimental shooting machine SR-3D, of the shooting chamber volume of 3.3 dm3, connected with the system of pneumatic supply ensuring the stable pressure supply of values: 0.4 MPa, 0.5 MPa and 0.6 MPa. Two diameters of the shooting hole, equal 10 mm and 20 mm, were applied for filling three experimental core boxes differing in dimensions of cavities and in number and distribution of deaerating vents. The filling process of core boxes was recorded by means of the digital camera PHANTOM V210 with the filming rate of 3000 pictures in second. Simultaneously, during the shot, other values allowing to determine the intensity of the core sand outflow from the shooting chamber to the core box, were tested. The presented in this publication results constitute the important element of the experimental verification of the blowing process simulation calculations which will be performed.
The investigation results of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with furfuryl resin are presented in this paper. The reclamation process was performed in the secondary reclamation chamber of the REGMAS 1.5 vibratory reclaimer. 70 kg portions of moulding sands, previously subjected to the primary reclamation and dedusting, were used. The secondary reclamation was performed in two stages: the first consisted of determining the reclaimer intensity at various reclamation times (5 min, 10 min and 15 min) and various electrovibrator frequencies (40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz), the second consisted of determining the influence of additional crushing elements on the intensity of processes.
In the knock-out process, as well as in the preliminary phase of moulding sand reclamation, the issue of energy demand for the process of crushing used sand agglutinations, preferably to single grains, is particularly important. At present, numerical values of moulding sand impact resistance, which would allow energy-related aspects of this process to be forecast, are not known, as such research has not been carried out. It seems that impact resistance tested on very small cross-section samples, which allows us to very precisely reveal some unique features of a moulding sand with organic and inorganic binders, is an important parameter, which so far has not been taken into account for evaluation of mechanical properties of moulding sands. Preliminary attempts to determine impact resistance of moulding sands have been carried out as part of own research of the author. The conducted investigations aimed at determining the relationships between the obtained values of tensile strength and impact resistance of moulding sands. In addition, the effect of holding samples at temperatures of 100oC, 200oC, 300oC on the value of impact resistance was determined, both for sands made with fresh and with reclaimed sand grains.
The paper, especially dealt with problems of reclamation of used furan sand, carried out in new, vibratory sand reclamation unit REGMAS developed by researches from AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering in Cracow (Poland). Functional characteristics of reclamation unit as well as the results of reclamation of used sand with furfuryl resin are discussed in the paper. The quality of reclaim was tested by means of the LOI and pH value, dust content in the reclaim and at least by the the quality of the castings produced in moulds prepared with the use of reclaimed matrix.
Experiments of filling the model moulds cavity of various inner shapes inserted in rectangular cavity of the casting die (dimensions: 280 mm (height) x 190 mm (width) x 10 mm (depth) by applying model liquids of various density and viscosity are presented in the paper. Influence of die venting as well as inlet system area and inlet velocity on the volumetric rate of filling of the model liquid – achieved by means of filming the process in the system of a cold-chamber casting die was tested. Experiments compared with the results of simulation performed by means of the calculation module Novacast (Novaflow&Solid) for the selected various casting conditions – are also presented in the paper.
The cumulative results of investigations of the possibility of using the reclaimed materials after the mechanical, thermal or mechanical-thermal reclamation for making cores by means of the blowing method in the alkaline CO2 technology, are presented in the paper. Three kinds of spent sands: with furfuryl resin, bentonite and alkaline phenolic resin, obtained from the foundry, were subjected to three kinds of reclamation: mechanical, thermal and combined mechanical-thermal, applying for this aim adequate experimental devices. The obtained reclaims were assessed with regard to the degree of the matrix liberation from the determined binding material. Reclaims of moulding sands with binders of the form of resin were assessed with regard to ignition loss values and pH reaction, while reclaims of moulding sands with bentonite with regard to the residual clay content and pH value. In all cases the results of the performed sieve analyses were estimated and the average characteristic diameter dl was determined. The reclaimed matrix was applied as a full substitute of the fresh high-silica sand in typical procedures of preparing core sands used for making shaped samples for bending strength investigations, Rg u .
The effects of filling the core box cavity and sand compaction in processes of core production by blowing methods (blowing, shooting) depend on several main factors. The most important are: geometrical parameters of cavity and complexity of its shape, number, distribution and shape of blowing holes feeding sands as well as the venting of a technological cavity. Values of individual parameters are selected according to various criteria, but mostly they should be adjusted to properties of the applied core sand. Various methods developed by several researchers, including the authors own attempts, allow to assess core sands properties on the basis of special technological tests projecting the process into a laboratory scale. The developed criteria defining a degree or a filling ability factor provide a better possibility of assessing the core sand behavior during flowing and core box filling, which indicate the value and structure of the obtained compacting decisive – after hardening – for strength and permeability. The mentioned above aspects are analyzed – on the basis of authors’ own examinations - in the hereby paper.
The problem related to the management of post reclamation dusts generated in the reclamation process of waste moulding sands with organic binders is presented in the hereby paper. Waste materials generated in this process are products hazardous for the environment and should be utilised. The prototype stand for the utilisation of this dangerous material in its co-burning with coal was developed and patented in AGH in Krakow. The stand was installed in one of the domestic casting houses. As the utilisation result the transformed waste product is obtained and its management in the production of ceramic materials constitutes the subject of the presented publication.
The investigation results of the mechanical reclamation of spent moulding sands from the Cordis technology are presented in the paper. The quality assessment of the obtained reclaim and the influence of the reclaim fraction in a matrix on the core sand strength is given. The reclaim quality assessment was performed on the basis of the determination of losses on ignition, Na2O content on reclaim grains and pH values. The reclaim constituted 100%, 75% and 50% of the core sand matrix, for which the bending strength was determined. The matrix reclamation treatment was performed in the experimental rotor reclaimer RD-6. Spent sands were applied in as-delivered condition and after the heating to a temperature of 140 o C. Shaped samples for strength tests were made by shooting and hardening of sands in the warmbox technology.
Theoretical problems concerning the determination of work parameters of the two-phase sand-air stream in the cores making process by blowing methods as well as experimental methods of determination of the main and auxiliary parameters of this process decisive on the cores quality assessed by the value and distribution of their apparent density are presented in the paper. In addition the results of visualisations of the core-box filling with the sand-air stream, from the blowing chamber, obtained by the process filming by means of the quick-action camera are presented in the paper and compared with the results of simulation calculations with the application of the ProCast software.
Mechanization of the process of core making with the use of inorganic and organic binders is based, almost solely, on core blowing machines. Presently the core blowing machines are equipped with tools and devices that allow for application of different technologies of core making. Cold-box, hot-box and warm-air technologies require that core blowing machines shall be additionally equipped with either core-box pre-heating system or gas purging and neutralization system, or hot air purging systems. Considering the possibility of using varied, the most advantageous technologies of core making, the production of universal core blowing machines equipped with replaceable devices has been undertaken in Poland. The universal core blowing systems allow for mechanization of core making process also with the use of sand, bonded by modern, eco-friendly binder systems. The paper presents selected results-based evaluation of core blowing process showing the scope of conducted design and implementation works.
A determination of the heating degree of the moulding sand with bentonite on the grounds of simulating investigations with the application of the MAGMA program, constitutes the contents of the paper. To this end the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution in the virtual casting mould was performed. It was assumed that the mould cavity was filled with a moulding sand with bentonite of a moisture content 3,2 % and bentonite content 8 %. A computer simulation can be used for predicting the heating degree of moulding sands with bentonite. Thus, prediction of the active bentonite (montmorillonite) content in individual layers of the overheated moulding sand can be done by means of the simulation. An overheating degree of a moulding sand with bentonite, and thus the bentonite deactivation depends on a temperature of a casting alloy, casting mass, ratio of: masssand : masscasting, moulding sand amount in the mould and contact area: metal – mould (geometry of the casting shape). Generally it can be stated, that the bentonite deactivation degree depends on two main factors: temperature of moulding sand heating and time of its operation.
Due to the presence of harmful substances in resins those mould sands may be hazardous to the natural environment and workers. The general assessment of harmfulness of sands used for molds and cores encompasses 2 basic points: emission of hazardous substances during processes of preparing sands, pouring mold with liquid metals (high temperatures), cooling and shaking-out; possibility of washing out hazardous substances from used sands to the environment, during storage or economic use outside foundries. We present the results of research on the emission of BTEX compounds from mould sands with phenolic resins during pouring liquid metal of different temperature (cast iron and Al alloy). The research was conducted according to the original method prepared by the authors, which has been used for years in cooperation with various foundries (Poland, abroad).
Suitability of the given binding agent for the moulding sands preparation depends on the one hand on the estimation of technological properties of the sand and the mould made of it and the obtained casting quality and on the other hand on the assessment of this sand influence on the natural and working environment. Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. If in the initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin (phenol-formaldehyde, urea, furfuryl, urea–furfuryl, alkyd) under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can be formed and released. The aim of the study was the development of the method, selection of analytical methods and the determination of optimal conditions of formation compounds from the BTEX group. An emission of these components constitutes one of the basic criteria of the harmfulness assessment of binders applied for moulding and core sands. Investigations were carried out in the specially designed set up for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in a temperature range: 5000 C – 13000 C at the laboratory scale. The object for testing was alkyd resin applied as a binding material for moulding sands. Within investigations the minimal amount of adsorbent necessary for the adsorption of compounds released during the decomposition of the resin sample of a mass app. 15 mg was selected. Also the minimal amount of solvent needed for the desorption of compounds adsorbed in the column with adsorbent was found. The temperature range, in which the maximal amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene and xylenes are released from the resin, was defined. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of compounds from the BTEX group were performed by means of the gas chromatography combined with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
The furan resin offers advantages such as high intensity, low viscosity, good humidity resistance and is suitable for cast different casting alloys: steel, cast iron and non-ferrous metal casting. For hardening furan resins are used different hardeners (acid catalysts). The acid catalysts have significant effects on the properties of the cured binder (e,g. binding strength and thermal stability) [1 - 3]. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according to the original method developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH UST. The analysis is carried out by the gas chromatography method with the application of the flame-ionising detector (FID) (TRACE GC Ultra THERMO SCIENTIFIC).