The hillfort Bojná I–Valy is a part of an early medieval fortification system located in the Považský Inovec mountain range that separates two densely populated settlement areas of Slovakia — namely the valleys of the Nitra and Váh rivers. Judging by the abundance of finds, in the 9th century the 12 hectare hillfort was a prominent seat of social elites. A bronze bell, a collection of gilded figural plaques as well as further symbols substantiate Christian affiliation of the community. The core of the monumental ramparts consists of log chambers with inner grates filled with soil and stones. From the front side, it was protected by a stone shell. Pincer gates had inwardly extended arms and a tower entrance in the front part of the corridor. According to the dendrochronological data, the fortification was erected in the last decade of the 9th century and shortly afterwards destroyed by a fire. Excavations of the bottom part of the ramparts confirmed, however, the presence of remains of an older construction. In this area, there are also four further hillforts providing finds dated back to the Early Middle Ages. At least one of them (Bojná II) was also destroyed by a fire at the end of the 9th century or in the 10th century.
This paper concerns an approach to model the ledger-stand joints of modular scaffolds. Based on the analysis of the working range of the ledger (represented by a linear relationship between load and displacement), two models of the ledger-stand joint are analysed: first – with flexibility joints and second – with rigid joints and with a transition part of lower stiffness. Parameters are selected based on displacement measurements and numerical analyses of joints, then they are verified. On the basis of performed research, it can be stated that both methods of joint modelling recommended in this paper, can be applied in engineering practices.
The paper presents the modelling measurement results of the load-displacement relation for scaffold stands and bracings. In the case of stands, there are two sections of curves, i.e. a straight-line and curvilinear section, and in the case of bracings, two straight line sections as well as one curvilinear section are distinguished. As a result of analyses, it is concluded that the sections which can be approximated by means of linear functions should be distinguished in graphs, if possible. On the one hand, this results from the evaluation methods of scaffold components. Nevertheless, the determination of elastic-linear scope of components’ operation is useful in engineering practice during computer calculations. Moreover, the method of determining an intersection point between functions, approximating tests results, along with analysis of the impact of polynomial degree, approximating the research results, on the time and effectiveness of the process of approximating functions selection, are all demonstrated in this article. The proposed method can prove useful in all science fields where curves obtained from any research (laboratory test, in situ test, numerical analysis) require approximation or replacement with a simpler description.