The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.
An overview of the important techniques for detection of optical radiation from the ultraviolet, through visible to infrared spectral regions is presented. At the beginning single-point devices are considered. Next, di.erent application circuits used in direct detection systems together with elucidation of the design of front-end circuits and discussion of their performance are presented. Third part of the paper is devoted to advanced techniques including coherent detection. Finally, the updated information devoted to readout of signals from detector arrays and focal plane arrays is included. It is shown that detector focal plane technology has revolutionized many kinds of imaging in the past 25 years.
The paper reports on the photoelectrical performance of the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe high operating temperature (HOT) detector. The detector structure was simulated with commercially available software APSYS by Crosslight Inc. taking into account SRH, Auger and tunnelling currents. A detailed analysis of the detector performance such as dark current, detectivity, time response as a function of device architecture and applied bias is performed, pointing out optimal working conditions.
In the paper recent progress at VIGO/MUT (Military University of Technology) MOCVD Laboratory in the growth of Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) multilayer heterostructures on GaAs/CdTe substrates is presented. The optimum conditions for the growth of single layers and complex multilayer heterostructures have been established. One of the crucial stages of HgCdTe epitaxy is CdTe nucleation on GaAs substrate. Successful composite substrates have been obtained with suitable substrate preparation, liner and susceptor treatment, proper control of background fluxes and appropriate nucleation conditions. The other critical stage is the interdi#27;used multilayer process (IMP). The growth of device-quality HgCdTe heterostructures requires complete homogenization of CdTe-HgTe pairs preserving at the same time suitable sharpness of composition and doping profiles. This requires for IMP pairs to be very thin and grown in a short time. Arsenic and iodine have been used for acceptor and donor doping. Suitable growth conditions and post growth anneal is essential for stable and reproducible doping. In situ anneal seems to be sufficient for iodine doping at any required level. In contrast, efficient As doping with near 100% activation requires ex situ anneal at near saturated mercury vapours. As a result we are able to grow multilayer fully doped (100) and (111) heterostructures for various infrared devices including photoconductors, photoelectromagnetic and photovoltaic detectors. The present generation of uncooled long wavelength infrared devices is based on multijunction photovoltaic devices. The technology steps in fabrication of devices are described. It is shown that near-BLIP performance is possible to achieve at ≈ 230 K with optical immersion. These devices are especially promising as 7.89.5 um detectors, indicating the potential for achieving detectivities above 109 cmHz1/2/W.
In this work we report simulation and experimental results for an MWIR HgCdTe photodetector designed by computer simulation and fabricated in a joint laboratory run by VIGO Sytems S.A. and Military University of Technology. The device is based on a modified N+pP+ heterostructure grown on 2”., epiready, semi-insulating (100) GaAs substrates in a horizontal MOCVD AIX 200 reactor. The devices were examined by measurements of spectral and time responses as a function of a bias voltage and operating temperatures. The time response was measured with an Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) as the source of ~25 ps pulses of infrared radiation, tuneable in a 1.55–16 μm spectral range. Two-stage Peltier cooled devices (230 K) with a 4.1 μm cut-off wavelength were characterized by 1.6 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W peak detectivity and < 1 ns time constant for V > 500 mV.