An implemented impedance measuring instrument is described in this paper. The device uses a dsPIC (Digital Signal Peripheral Interface Controller) as a processing unit, and a DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) to stimulate the measurement circuit composed by the reference impedance and the unknown impedance. The voltages across the impedances are amplified by programmable gain instrumentation amplifiers and then digitized by analog to digital converters. The impedance is measured by applying a seven-parameter sine-fitting algorithm to estimate the sine signal parameters. The dsPIC communicates through RS-232 or USB with a computer, where the measurement results can be analyzed. The device also has an LCD to display the measurement results.
Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the carrier fluid that are seen by the bubbles due to turbulence fluctuations. Also we have included in the model the deformation that suffers the bubble when it touches the wall and it is compressed by the forces that pushes it toward the wall, provoking that the bubble rebound like a ball.
Pest mites of the family Tetranychidae are commonly reported in several legumes. However, reports of their occurrence in lima beans are insipient, especially in Brazil. The objective of this research was to record the occurrence of mites in lima bean plants and to describe their damage in this Fabaceae. Tetranychus neocaledonicus André and Mononychellus planki McGregor were found in lima bean plants, Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae or Leguminosae). The lima bean plants, when infested by these mites, initially exhibit small whitish spots in the leaflets, which with increasing population density rapidly evolve into chlorotic patches, followed by silvering, and may dry out and fall due to their overfeeding. The extent of the damage caused to lima bean plants and the adaptability of the mite to warm and dry conditions indicate that T. neocaledonicus has greater potential as a lima bean pest than M. planki in northeastern Brazil. This is the first record of these mites associated with P. lunatus.
The problem of sequencing jobs on a single machine to minimize total cost (earliness and tardiness) is nowadays not just important due to traditional concerns but also due to its importance in the context of Collaborative Networked Organizations and Virtual Enterprises, where precision about promptly responses to customers’ requests, along with other important requirements, assume a crucial role. In order to provide a contribution in this direction, in this paper the authors contribute with an applied constructive heuristics that tries to find appropriate solutions for single machine scheduling problems under different processing times and due dates, and without preemption allowed. In this paper, two different approaches for single-machine scheduling problems, based on external and internal performance measures are applied to the problem and a comparative analysis is performed. Computational results are presented for the problem under Just-in-Time and agile conditions on which each job has a due date, and the objective is to minimize the sum of holding costs for jobs completed before their due date and tardiness costs for jobs completed after their due date. Additional computational tests were developed based on different customer and enterprise oriented performance criteria, although preference is given to customer-oriented measures, namely the total number of tardy jobs and the maximum tardiness.