This article aims to evaluate the potential application of prefabricated panels in energy retrofit of facades in the Portuguese building stock. The fundamentals of this study were part of Annex 50, which was an international ECBCS IEA project, with the purpose of developing an innovative concept of building renovation for the most representative buildings based on prefabricated systems. To analyze the potential application of energy retrofit using prefabricated panels, was important to know the reality of the existing building stock and its morphology. To know the reality of the building stock, an analysis was done based on the existing statistical data and to find the most representative residential buildings, target of the study, three criteria were defined: buildings built before 1990, with 2 to 6 floors and with renovation needs in the exterior envelope. In the absence of statistical information about buildings morphology, a research work was done in the field. During the collection of data a methodology was developed in which each opening was classified according to a code with three parameters. In the end of the classification, 29 final codes were achieved and was verified that three types of panels have a higher probability of being applied.
Primiparous and multiparous lactating crossbred dairy cows with a mature corpus luteum and a follicle with >10 mm in diameter were treated with cloprostenol. Those cows that showed oestrus within 5 days after treatment were inseminated (Group P). The other cows (Group PG) were treated with GnRH 2 days after cloprostenol treatment and timed artificial insemination (AI) was performed on the consecutive day, or were inseminated (Group G) after detected oestrus and treated with GnRH immediately after AI. The control cows (Group C) after detected oestrus were only inseminated. All of the AIs using frozen semen were done between 6 and 7 a.m. while the ultrasonographic examinations after AI were performed between 4 to 6 p.m. The ovaries of each cow were scanned by means of transrectal ultrasonography from the day of AI until ovulation. Daily blood samples were collected for progesterone measurements. The ovulation and preg- nancy rates among the groups changed between 84.6% and 95.5%, as well as 44.4% and 60%, respectively, however the differences were not statistically significant. All the cows were evaluated according to date of ovulation after AI and the pregnancy rate was 55.4% (Group 1: ovulation occurred between AI and 9-11 h after AI), 54.5% (Group 2: ovulation occurred between 9-11 h and 33-35 h after AI) and 35.5% (Group 3: ovulation occurred between 33-35 h and 57-59 h after AI), respectively. There was a trend (P=0.087) for 2.2 greater odds of staying open among cows inseminated between 33 to 35 h and 57 to 59 h before ovulation compared to cows inseminated within 9 to 11 h before ovulation. If ovulation occurred before AI, the pregnancy rate was only 22.2%, therefore determination of optimal time for AI is of great importance.
The article aims to evaluate the Portuguese building stock energy policies and strategy for energy saving in buildings among the EU members. It was found out the average heat transfer coefficients of the main structural elements of Portuguese Buildings and analyzed the U-values of this elements considering different time periods. The fundamentals of this study were funded by the Agency for Development and Innovation (ADI) and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) through the Operational Program for Competitiveness Factors (POFC) assigned to the Building Physics and Construction Technology Laboratory with the reference SB Tool SPT_2011_4.