A developed method and measurement setup for measurement of noise generated in a supercapacitor is presented. The requirements for noise data recording are considered and correlated with working modes of supercapacitors. An example of results of low-frequency noise measurements in commercially available supercapacitors are presented. The ability of flicker noise measurements suggests that they can be used to assess quality of tested supercapacitors.
This paper concerns the possibility of use the Jiles-Atherton extended model to describe the magnetic characteristics of construction steel St3 under mechanical stress. Results of the modelling utilizing extended Jiles-Atherton model are consistent with results of experimental measurements for magnetic hysteresis loops B(H). Material stress state determination by using non-destructive, magnetic properties based on testing techniques is an especially important problem.
The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, one of the largest nonacademic biological research centres in Poland, celebrates its 100th anniversary. The Institute was established in 1918 by the Scientific Society of Warsaw. In 1945, after World War II, it was re-established in Łódź and in 1952 incorporated into the newly founded Polish Academy of Sciences. During the period of 1953–1955 a newly erected building at 3 Pasteur Street in Warsaw became the home of the Nencki Institute. Today, the Nencki Institute strives for excellence in basic research in the broad sense of biological sciences. Neurosciences and biological and molecular basic of civilization diseases represent two main research areas of the Institute in the context of the society needs to improve the quality of life. One of the strategic activities of the Institute is investments in bio- imaging.This has recently resulted in inclusion of the Institute in the EUROBIOIMAGING project of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). An excellent example of a synergy of basic and innovative studies is the Neurobiology Centre established at the Nencki Institute in 2010–2013 as part of a strategic project entitled the CePT. Additionally, the Nencki Institute trains nearly 200 PhD students under various programmes, including the H2020.
Kinetic resolution of (R)- and (S)-mandelic acid by its transesterification with vinyl acetate catalysed by Burholderia cepacia lipase has been studied. The influence of the initial substrate concentration on the kinetics of process has been investigated. A modified ping-pong bi-bi model of enzymatic transesterification of (S)-mandelic acid including substrate inhibition has been developed. The values of kinetic parameters of the model have been estimated. We have shown that the inhibition effect revealed over a certain threshold limit value of the initial concentration of substrate.
The paper presents a proposal of using additional statistical parameters such as: standard deviation, variance, maximum and minimum increases of the observed value that were determined during measurements of temperature fields created on the surface of the tested electrochemical capacitor. The measurements were carried out using thermographic methods in order to support assessment of the condition of electrochemical capacitor under classic durability tests based on methods of determination of capacity and equivalent series resistance. The possibility of using some statistical parameters in assessment of the electrochemical capacitor quality was illustrated. The applied measurement methodology and the results of research associated with the classic methods of supercapacitors’ assessment are presented. The obtained results indicate that the variability of some statistical parameters of temperature fields can be directly related to changing the values of standard parameters describing electrochemical capacitor, which are capacitance and equivalent series resistance.
Paper presents methodology of generation of the uniform, compressive or tensile stresses in ring-shaped amorphous alloys core. In this study we use the set of special nonmagnetic, cylindrical backings. These backings enabled the core to be wound as well as create the possibility of generation of uniform compressive and tensile stresses. Using presented methodology the magnetoelastic characteristics were experimentally determined for Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 Metglas 2826 MB amorphous alloy. Knowledge about these properties is important for users of inductive components with amorphous alloys cores due to the fact, that changes of flux density due to magnetoelastic effect exceed 40%.
Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC), called Supercapacitors (SC), are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.