The Halbach array structure rotor of the aero motor can satisfy the requirements of high power density and high air-gap flux for aeronautical motors. The size parameters of the rotor are determined by the power rating of the motor based on an analytic method. Producing a Halbach array structure is difficult. Comparison and analysis of the structure of the aero motor showthat the overall structure of the rotor adopts a three-axial-section classic Halbach-array hollow structure, and the rotor magnetic steel adopts a discrete structure of 4 blocks per pole and a single 45◦ magnetisation mode, which reduces the processing difficulty of the rotor magnetic steel. The finite element method was used to analyse the magnetic flux density distribution of the aeronautical motor under various working conditions. The results show that the motor can produce uniform air-gap flux density at various working conditions and present good sinusoidal periodicity. Furthermore, the axial segment did not produce obvious magnetic flux leakage. Finally, considering the eddy current loss of the stator under the rated power-generation condition with high-frequency magnetic field, we conducted coupling analysis of electromagnetic and heat flows to verify that the thermal characteristics of the rotor magnetic steel material could meet the requirements for the aero motor.
The loss of power and voltage can affect distribution networks that have a significant number of distributed power resources and electric vehicles. The present study focuses on a hybrid method to model multi-objective coordination optimisation problems for dis- tributed power generation and charging and discharging of electric vehicles in a distribution system. An improved simulated annealing based particle swarm optimisation (SAPSO) algorithm is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimisation problem with two objective functions including the minimal power loss index and minimal voltage deviation index. The proposed method is simulated on IEEE 33-node distribution systems and IEEE-118 nodes large scale distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the technique. The simulation results indicate that the power loss and node voltage deviation are significantly reduced via the coordination optimisation of the power of distributed generations and charging and discharging power of electric vehicles.With the methodology supposed in this paper, thousands of EVs can be accessed to the distribution network in a slow charging mode.
Tight junction proteins are important for the maintenance and repair of the intestinal mucosal barrier. The present study investigated relationships among tight junction protein gene expres- sion, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and intestinal mucosal morphology in piglets. We compared the expression of six tight junction proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2, Occludin, Claudin-1, Claudin-4, and Claudin-5) between seven-day-old piglets infected with PEDV and normal piglets, as well as in PEDV-infected porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). We also evaluated differences in mucosal morphology between PEDV-infected and normal piglets. The expression of six tight junction protein genes was lower in PEDV-infected piglets than in the normal animals. The expression of ZO-1, ZO-2, Occludin, and Claudin-4 in the intestine tissue was significantly lower (p<0.05) in PEDV-infected than in normal piglets. The expression of Claudin-5 in the jejunum was significantly lower in PEDV-infected piglets than in the normal animals (p<0.01). The expression of Claudin-1 and Claudin-5 genes in the ileum was signifi- cantly higher in PEDV-infected piglets than in normal piglets (p<0.01). Morphologically, the intestinal mucosa in PEDV-infected piglets exhibited clear pathological changes, including breakage and shedding of intestinal villi. In PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, the mRNA expression of the six tight junction proteins showed a downward trend; in particular, the expression of the Occludin and Claudin-4 genes was significantly lower (p<0.01). These data suggest that the expression of these six tight junction proteins, especially Occludin and Claudin-4, plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier and resistance to PEDV infection in piglets.
The cohesion and internal friction angle were characterized as quadratic functions of strain and were assumed to follow the Mohr-Coulomb criterion after the yield of peak strength. These mechanical parameters and their variations in post-peak softening stage can be exactly ascertained through the simultaneous solution based on the data points of stress-strain curves of triaxial compression tests. Taking the influence of the fault into account, the variation of strata pressure and roadway convergence with coal advancement, the temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load were numerically simulated by FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) using the ascertained post-peak mechanical parameters according to the cohesion weakening and friction strengthening model. The change mechanism of axial load of single rock bolt as abutment pressure changes was analyzed, through the comparison analysis with the results of axial bolt load by field measurements at a coal mine face. The research results show that the simulated results such as the period of main roof weighting, temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load are in accordance with field measurement results, so the validity of the numerical model is testified. In front of the working face, the front abutment pressure increases first and then decreases, finally tends to be stable. A corresponding correlation exists between the variation of axial bolt load and rock deformation along the bolt body. When encountered by a fault, the maximum abutment pressure, the influential range of mining disturbance and the roadway convergence between roof and floor before the working face are all increased. In the roadways along the gob, axial bolt loads on the side of the working face decrease, while the other side one increases after the collapse of the roof. As superficial surrounding rock mass is damaged, the anchoring force of rock bolts will transfer to inner rock mass for balancing the tensile load of the bolts.
Phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are reported to be recognized by the membrane-bound TLR9 and trigger the MyD88-dependent up-regulation of Type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether plasmids containing multiple CpG motifs stimulate the same signaling pathway is yet to be determined. The present results show that the CpG motifs enrich plasmid pUC18-CpG stimulates RAW 264.7 in vitro, mainly through the TBK1-mediated signaling pathway, causing the up-regulation of IFN-β, and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. When pUC18-CpG is co-administered with the recombinant Echinococcus granulosus antigen, the antigen-specific antibody titers are markedly increased compared to the Quil-A adju- vanted group. Antigen specific cytokine quantification shows that cytokine profiles from the pUC18-CpG adjuvanted-group are switched to a Th1-biased immune response.
Function of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) major histocompatibility complex class I (Anpl-MHC I) molecules in binding peptides is through the peptide binding groove (PBG), which is thought to be influenced by the high polymorphism of α1 and α2 domains. However, little is known about the polymorphism of Anpl-MHC I peptide binding domain (PBD), especially in the domestic duck. Here, we analyzed the polymorphism of forty-eight Anpl-MHC I α1 and α2 domains from domestic duck breeds previously reported. All sequences were analyzed through multiple sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The coefficient of variance of the peptide binding domains (PBDs) from WS, CV, JD, and SX duck breeds was estimated based on the Wu-Kabat variability index, followed by the location of the highly variable sites (HVSs) on reported crystal structure models. Analysis of α1 and α2 domains showed common features of classical MHC class I and high polymorphism, especially in α1 domain. The constructed phylogenetic tree showed that PBDs of domestic ducks did not segregate based on breeds and had a close phylogenetic relationship, even with wild ducks. In each breed, HVSs were mostly located in the PBG, suggesting that they might determine peptide-binding characteristics and subsequently influence peptide presentation and recognition. The combined results of sequence data and crystal structure provide novel valuable insights into the polymorphism and diversity of Anpl-MHC I PBDs that will facilitate further studies on disease resistance differences between duck breeds and the development of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope vaccines suited for preventing diseases in domestic ducks.