The arbuscules of mycorrhizae develop within apoplastic compartments of the host plant, as they are separated from the cell protoplast by an interfacial matrix continuous with the plant cell wall. Expansins are proteins that allow cell wall loosening and extension. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy we located the NtEXPA5 epitopes recognized by polyclonal antibody anti-NtEXPA5 in mycorrhizal tobacco roots. The expansin protein was localized mainly within the interfacial matrix of intracellular hyphae, arbuscule trunk and main branches. NtEXPA5 proteins were detected neither within the interface of collapsing arbuscule branches nor in non-colonized cortex cells. In plant cell walls, expansin protein was detected only at the penetration point and in the parts of cell walls that adhered firmly to fungal hyphae growing intracellularly. For the first time, NtEXPA5 protein was localized ultrastructurally in hyphae growing intracellularly at the interface of the hypha tip and sites of bending. The novel localization of NtEXPA5 protein suggests that this protein may be involved in the process of arbuscule formation: that is, in promoting apical hyphal growth and arbuscule ramification, as well as in controlling the dynamic of arbuscule mycorrhiza development.
Eyespot is one of the most important fungal diseases of the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The presented study clearly demonstrated that the Pch1 gene was the main effective source for reducing the eyespot disease score in the analyzed winter wheat lines. Nevertheless, Pch1 was present only in 8−9% of the investigated lines. Using an isoenzymatic marker and molecular markers, the presence of the Pch1 gene and lack of the Pch2 gene was identified in six lines. Two lines, SMH 9409 and DL 358/13/4, were polymorphic in an isoenzymatic marker study. In the remaining three lines, C 3373/11-1, KBH 15.15 and KBP 1416, the Pch1 gene was identified only with the use of an isoenzymatic marker. Both genes Pch1 and Pch2, as well as the resistant variety Rendezvous, were found in three lines: DD 248/12, KBP 15.2 and STH 4431. In line DD 708/13, the presence of the Pch1 and Pch2 genes was identified, where the association between the Pch1 and the locus of the Xorw5 marker was broken. It was shown that the presence or absence of Pch1 and Pch2 genes did not significantly affect the grain yield (from the plot), although the yield was highest in the presence of both genes. A significant effect of the presence of the Pch1 gene on thousand kernel weight (TKW) was observed. Lines with the Pch1 gene showed significantly higher TKW values than lines without both genes or with the Pch2 gene only.
This study analysed the influence of montelukast (MON; 10-8 - 10-4 M), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist, on the contractility of the porcine uterine smooth muscle in the luteal phase of the oesterous cycle (n=8) and in early pregnancy (n=8). Stimulation of uterine strips in the luteal phase with MON has been shown to significantly reduce the amplitude of con- tractions, but not to affect the tension or frequency of contractions. A statistically significant tension increase and decrease in the frequency and amplitude of contractions was observed in pigs in early pregnancy. This suggests that MON has a different effect on the parameters under study in cyclic and pregnant pigs.
The text deals with the counterfactual thinking of preschool children. The theoretical justification for the research can be found in the nativist concepts of Alan Leslie and Alison Gopnik, which assumes that even very young children have a natural ability to accept the strangest creations of the imagination and to connect them together into one amazing whole. During the research, recognizing children’s metaphorical meanings required me to act as an interpretively involved observer-as-participant. In doing so, educational interventions enabled me to be situated within the observed phenomena, in close relationship with the children being studied. The observation, meanwhile, embraced the spontaneous activities of the children engaged in symbolic playing and the effect of these activities (mainly artistic concretizations). The liberation of counterfactual thinking in preschoolers being induced with literary texts. The collected material has allowed me to draw conclusions applicable to educational practice.
This article presents the results of laboratory tests of the physical and mechanical properties of various types of sandstone selected from ten quarries from Carpathian flysch. The parameters were used to evaluate the quality of the sandstone and its suitability for use as armourstone in accordance with applicable standards and quality guidelines. The requirements of the BN-79/8952-31, EN 13383-1:2003 and the CIRIA, CUR, CETMEF (2007) standards were compared. Sandstone can display a large variability of parameters depending on its origin. This, in turn, results in a varying degree of its susceptibility to the destructive effects of water and climate.
MP estimation is a method which concerns estimating of the location parameters when the probabilistic models of observations differ from the normal distributions in the kurtosis or asymmetry. The system of Pearson’s distributions is the probabilistic basis for the method. So far, such a method was applied and analyzed mostly for leptokurtic or mesokurtic distributions (Pearson’s distributions of types IV or VII), which predominate practical cases. The analyses of geodetic or astronomical observations show that we may also deal with sets which have moderate asymmetry or small negative excess kurtosis. Asymmetry might result from the influence of many small systematic errors, which were not eliminated during preprocessing of data. The excess kurtosis can be related with bigger or smaller (in relations to the Hagen hypothesis) frequency of occurrence of the elementary errors which are close to zero. Considering that fact, this paper focuses on the estimation with application of the Pearson platykurtic distributions of types I or II. The paper presents the solution of the corresponding optimization problem and its basic properties. Although platykurtic distributions are rare in practice, it was an interesting issue to find out what results can be provided by MP estimation in the case of such observation distributions. The numerical tests which are presented in the paper are rather limited; however, they allow us to draw some general conclusions.
W artykule omówiono i poddano analizie dwa źródłowe teksty Henryka Elzenberga dotyczące zagadnienia zależności i niezależności etyki od obrazu świata oraz sporu o zależność etyki od religii. Temat dyskutowany był w Polsce od połowy lat pięćdziesiątych. W tekstach Elzenberga poddany został precyzyjnej analizie semantycznej i realnej. Jej wynik pokazuje, że treść ocen i norm pochodnych, ich realność i uzasadnienie są zależne od obrazu świata, w którym oceny i normy funkcjonują. Zależność od obrazu świata ulega natomiast ograniczeniu w sferze ocen i norm podstawowych. Podobnie jest z zależnością etyki od religii. Religijny obraz świata wielorako wpływa na zakres podmiotowy i przedmiotowy etyki, jej strukturę, na świadomość mocy obowiązującej i siłę motywacyjną, ale nie ma wpływu na logiczne uzasadnienie etyki. Etyka poza religijnym obrazem świata jest możliwa. Elzenberg wypowiada się z pozycji intuicjonisty w teorii poznania moralnego i jest perfekcjonistą w podążaniu za tym, co poznane moralnie i etycznie ugruntowane. Odrzuca jednak nieścisłe twierdzenie o niezależności etyki od obrazu świata i religii w ogóle.