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Number of results: 9
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Abstract

The welfare and healthy growth of poultry under intensive feeding conditions are closely related to their living environment. In spring, the air quality considerably decreases due to reduced ventilation and aeration in cage systems, which influences the meat quality and health of broilers during normal growth stages. In this study, we analyzed the airborne bacterial communities in PM2.5 and PM10 in cage broiler houses at different broiler growth stages under intensive rearing conditions based on the high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing technique. Our results revealed that PM2.5, PM10 and airborne microbes gradually increased during the broiler growth cycle in poultry houses. Some potential or opportunistic pathogens, including Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Microbacterium, etc., were found in the broiler houses at different growth stages. Our study evaluated variations in the microbial communities in PM2.5 and PM10 and potential opportunistic pathogens during the growth cycle of broilers in poultry houses in the spring. Our findings may provide a basis for developing technologies for air quality control in caged poultry houses.
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Abstract

In vitro embryogenic callus is a critical factor for genetic transformation of rice, especially for indica varieties. In this study, we investigated the relationship between polyamines, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and callus browning, and we studied the effect of exogenous Put on callus regeneration and on the content of endogenous polyamines. In addition, the expression levels of arginine decarboxylase gene (Adcl) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene (Samdc) in embryogenic callus were studied by quantitative Real-time PCR analysis. The results showed that the contents of endogenous Put and Spd in the browning callus were significantly lower than those in normal callus. Exogenous Put could effectively improve the growing state of callus of indica rice and enhance the development of embryogenic callus. The content of endogenous polyamines in embryogenic callus, especially Spd and Spm, was increased after addition of exogenous Put. Additionally, exogenous Put also had an obvious impact on the expression levels of Adcl but partial effect on the expression levels of Samdc gene. This study could increase the knowledge of both embryogenic callus induction and polyamine catabolism in callus in indica rice.
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Abstract

The effects of Mg and Ca on sulfide modification of sulphur steel were studied to elucidate the difference between micromagnesium treatment and micro-calcium treatment for the inclusion of sulphur steel. The results show that the inclusions in the steel appeared with an oxide core of Al2O3 and MnS wrapped. After the addition of Mg, the core was changed to spinel, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Mg-S. After Ca was added, the core was changed to Ca-Al-O, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Ca-S. The Mg content was higher than Ca content in the sulfides of the steel. Therefore, Mg was more effective than Ca in terms of sulfide modification with the same content of Mg and Ca in steel, but the yielding rate of Mg was lower than that of Ca. The Mg content in the oxide core was higher than Mg of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Mg or Mg-Ca. In contrast, the Ca content in the oxide core was lower than Ca of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Ca or Mg-Ca. MnS formed and precipitated during the melt solidification process. The complex sulfide (Mg-Mn-S) was precipitated around MgO·Al2O3 in the Mg treated steel during the cooling process. CaS inclusion was precipitated on the CaO·Al2O3 inclusions in the liquid Ca-treated steel. Thus, CaS was formed first, whereas MnS was formed during the cooling process, followed by the formation of complex sulfide (CaS+MnS), which finally precipitated around CaO·Al2O3 in the Ca-treated steel.
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Abstract

In order to compare the pathogenicity of different Tembusu virus (TMUV) strains from geese, ducks and chickens, 56 5-day-old Cherry Valley ducklings which were divided into 7 groups and infected intramuscularly with 7´105 PFU/ml per duck of six challenge virus stocks. The clinical signs, weight gain, mortality, macroscopic and microscopic lesions, virus loads in sera of 1, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 dpi and serum antibody titers were examined. The results showed that these viruses could make the young ducks sick, but the clinical signs differed with the different species-original strains. All the experimental groups lose markedly in weight gain compared to the control, but there were no obvious distinctions in weight gains, as well as macroscopic and microscopic lesions of dead ducks between the infected groups. However, the groups of waterfowl-derived strains (from geese and ducks) showed more serious clinical signs and higher relative expressions of virus loads in sera than those from chicken-derived. The mortality of waterfowl groups was 37.5%, and the greatest mortality of chicken groups was 12.5%. The serum antibodies of the geese-species group JS804 appeared earlier and were higher in the titers than others. Taken toghter, the pathogenicity of waterfowl-derived TMUV was more serious than chicken-derived TMUV and JS804 could be chosen as one TMUV vaccine strain to protect from the infection.
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