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Abstract

Abstract Conditioned medium (CM) is a general term describing media in which cells have already been cultivated for some time. Such media, usually clarified by filtration, have been used by plant biotechnologists as additives sup-porting the growth of cell suspensions, organs and whole plants. This study examined the effect of CM obtained from green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus on the growth and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana in culture in vitro. Plants where cultured on CM diluted 1.25-, 2-and 5-fold with MS medium. The increase in fresh and dry weight was highest in tobacco and Arabidopsis cultured on CM/2 and CM/1.25 media. Those two concentrations also increased the amount of chlorophylls in both plants tested. CM improved parameter PI (reflecting the photosynthetic “vitality” of the organism) and electron transport efficiency, and increased the fraction of active reaction centers. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo suggests that the improvement of these plants grown in the presence of algal CM may result from stimulation of photosynthesis. Algal CM offers a convenient, cheap, universal supplement for stimulating the growth of higher plants in vitro.
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Abstract

Developing the empathic attitude is one of the tasks of medical education as it aff ects the quality of therapeutic contact in the relationship between the doctor and the patient, conditioning the treatment process. According to Davis’s concept, empathy is defi ned as an aff ective-cognitive reaction in the context of the other person’s experience. Aim: Analysis of profi les of empathic sensitivity in students of medicine. Group: Male and female students of the fi ft h year of medicine who agreed to participate in an anonymous study (n = 153; M = 57, F = 96; mean age: 23 years). Tools: Th e Empathetic Sensitivity Scale (EES), which is the Polish tool for Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used. Th e ESS includes three sub-scales: Empathic Care (EC), Personal Distress (PD) and Adopting Perspective (AP). Results: The raw results were converted into sten scores and for sten scores for all three dimensions of empathetic sensitivity no diff erences were found between male and female students. Th ree clusters (1: n = 33%, 2: n = 39%, 3: n = 28%), which diff er in terms of each distinguished indicator, were identifi ed. Conclusions: Th e first cluster characterizes empathetic people, both in the aff ective and cognitive spheres, and those dealing well with unpleasant emotions in situations diffi cult to others. Th e second cluster characterizes participants with the ability to recognize the needs of others and to take into account their perspectives; the third cluster includes participants with a tendency to focus on their own experiences emerging in response to other people’s suff ering but with the ability to understand a situation and show empathic concern for the other person. The most favourable profi le — for a future doctor as well as for his patients — is the fi rst cluster because the doctor, with his empathic sensitivity directed towards the other man, can deal with his own unpleasant emotions.
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