The form, waviness and roughness components of a measured profile are separated by means of digital filters. The aim of analysis was to develop an algorithm for one-dimensional filtering of profiles using approximation by means of B-splines. The theory of B-spline functions introduced by Schoenberg and extended by Unser et al. was used. Unlike the spline filter proposed by Krystek, which is described in ISO standards, the algorithm does not take into account the bending energy of a filtered profile in the functional whose minimization is the principle of the filter. Appropriate smoothness of a filtered profile is achieved by selecting an appropriate distance between nodes of the spline function. In this paper, we determine the Fourier transforms of the filter impulse response at different impulse positions, with respect to the nodes. We show that the filter cutoff length is equal to half of the node-to-node distance. The inclination of the filter frequency characteristic in the transition band can be adjusted by selecting an appropriate degree of the B-spline function. The paper includes examples of separation of 2D roughness, as well as separation of form and waviness of roundness profiles.